## 7.2 Ingenieurbau

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#### Schlagworte

- Fatigue (21)
- Ground vibration (18)
- Monitoring (13)
- Structural Health Monitoring (12)
- Structural health monitoring (12)
- Finite element method (10)
- Slab track (10)
- Damage detection (9)
- Inspection (9)
- Offshore wind energy (9)

#### Organisationseinheit der BAM

- 7 Bauwerkssicherheit (340) (entfernen)

Structural health monitoring (SHM) of civil structures often is limited due to changing environmental conditions, as those changes affect the structural dynamical properties in a similar way like damages can do. In this article, an approach for damage detection under changing temperatures is presentedand applied to a beam structure. The used stochastic subspace-based algorithm relies on a reference null space estimate, which is confronted to data from the testing state in a residual function. For damage detection the residual is evaluated by means of statistical hypothesis tests. Changes of the system due to temperature effects are handled with a model interpolation approach from linear parameter varying system theory. From vibration data measured in the undamaged state at some few reference temperatures, a model of the dynamic system valid for the current testing temperature is interpolated. The reference null space and the covariance matrix for the hypothesis test is computed from this interpolated model. This approach has been developed recently and was validated in an academic test case on simulations of a mass-spring-damper. In this paper, the approach is validated experimentally on a beam structure under varying temperature conditions in a climate chamber. Compared to other approaches, the interpolation approach leads to significantly less false positive alarms in the reference state when the structure is exposed to different temperatures, while faults can still be detected reliably.

The statistical subspace-based damage detection technique has shown promising theoretical and practical results for vibration-based structural health monitoring. It evaluates a subspacebased residual function with efficient hypothesis testing tools, and has the ability of detecting small changes in chosen system parameters. In the residual function, a Hankel matrix of Output covariances estimated from test data is confronted to its left null space associated to a reference model. The hypothesis test takes into account the covariance of the residual for decision making. Ideally, the reference model is assumed to be perfectly known without any uncertainty, which is not a realistic assumption. In practice, the left null space is usually estimated from a reference data set to avoid model errors in the residual computation. Then, the associated uncertainties may be non-negligible, in particular when the available reference data is of limited length. In this paper, it is investigated how the statistical distribution of the residual is affected when the reference null space is estimated. The asymptotic residual distribution is derived, where its refined covariance term considers also the uncertainty related to the reference null space estimate. The associated damage detection test closes a theoretical gap for real-world applications and leads to increased robustness of the method in practice. The importance of including the estimation uncertainty of the reference null space is shown in a numerical study
and on experimental data of a progressively damaged steel frame.

Structural health monitoring (SHM) of civil structures often is limited due to changing environmental conditions, as those changes affect the structural dynamical properties in a similar way like damages can do. In this article, an approach for damage detection under changing temperatures is presentedand applied to a beam structure. The used stochastic subspace-based algorithm relies on a reference null space estimate, which is confronted to data from the testing state in a residual function. For damage detection the residual is evaluated by means of statistical hypothesis tests. Changes of the system due to temperature effects are handled with a model interpolation approach from linear parameter varying system theory. From vibration data measured in the undamaged state at some few reference temperatures, a model of the dynamic system valid for the current testing temperature is interpolated. The reference null space and the covariance matrix for the hypothesis test is computed from this interpolated model. This approach has been developed recently and was validated in an academic test case on simulations of a mass-spring-damper. In this paper, the approach is validated experimentally on a beam structure under varying temperature conditions in a climate chamber. Compared to other approaches, the interpolation approach leads to significantly less false positive alarms in the reference state when the structure is exposed to different temperatures, while faults can still be detected reliably

Im AISTEC Projekt erforscht der FB 7.2 Verfahren zur Bewertung von Verkehrsbrücken auf der Gruandlage von sensorbasierten Bauwerksmessungen. In diesem Vortrag wird ein Überlick über die Forschungsarbeiten des FB 7.2 präsentiert. Des Weiteren wird ein Ausblick zur quantitativen Integration von sensorbasierten Bauwerksmessungen in die risiko-basierte prädiktive Planung von Inspektionen und Reparaturen von Ingenieurbauwerken gegeben.

Der Vortrag stellt die Durchführung und die ersten Ergebnisse der Belastungsfahrten der BAM im Rahmen des AISTEC Projekts an der Maintalbrücke am 19.05. und 20.05.2021 vor. Es wurden Tragwerksreaktionen des Bauwerks mit dem installierten Dauermonitoringsystem und insbesondere dem Betongelenk mit zusätzlich installierter Sensorik aufgezeichnet. Für die Ermittlung der Lastposition wurden mehrere Verfahren eingesetzt und verglichen.

Changes in the measured response of structural systems can be an indication of structural damages. However, such changes can also be caused by the effect of varying environmental conditions. To detect, localize and quantify changes or damages in structural systems subject to varying environmental conditions, physics-based models of the structural systems have to be applied which explicitly account for the influence of ambient conditions on the structural behavior. Data obtained from the structural systems should be used to calibrate the models and update predictions. Bayesian system identification is an effective framework for this task. In this paper, we apply this framework to learn the parameters of two competing structural models of a reinforced concrete beam subject to varying temperatures based on static response data. The models describe the behavior of the beam in the uncracked and cracked condition. The data is collected in a series of load tests in a climate chamber. Bayesian model class selection is then applied to infer the most plausible condition of the beam conditional on the available data.

Nach den bisherigen Regeln werden Bauwerksprüfungen von Brücken in starr definierten Intervallen durchgeführt. Diese starre, periodische, zustandsbasierte Instandhaltungsstrategie soll zukünftig durch eine flexible und prädiktive Instandhaltung ersetzt werden. Hierbei sollen Inspektionen und Instandhaltungsmaßnahmen unterstützt durch autonome Systeme auf der Grundlage von Monitoringdaten geplant und zusätzlich bei unvorhergesehenen Ereignissen ausgelöst werden. Im Rahmen des Verbundforschungsvorhabens AISTEC wird ein Vorgehen für Großbauwerke und kleinere Regelbauwerke zur Umsetzung eines kombinierten globalen, schwingungsbasierten und quasistatischen Monitorings entworfen. An der Maintalbrücke Gemünden – einer semiintegralen Rahmenbrücke aus Spannbeton auf der Schnellfahrstrecke Hannover–Würzburg – wurde als Demonstrator ein Dauermonitoring realisiert.

The reliability of deteriorating structures at time t is quantified by the probability that failure occurs within the period leading up to time t. This probability is often referred to as cumulative failure probability and is equal to the cumulative distribution function of the time to failure. In structural reliability, an estimate of the cumulative failure probability is obtained based on probabilistic engineering models of the deterioration processes and structural performance. Information on the condition and the loading contained in inspection and monitoring data can be included in the probability estimate through Bayesian updating. Conditioning the probability of failure on the inspection or monitoring outcomes available at time t (e.g. detections or no detection of damages) can lead to a reduction in that probability.
Such a drop in the cumulative failure probability might seem counterintuitive since the cumulative failure probability is a non-decreasing function of time. In this paper, we illustrate—with the help of a numerical example—that such a drop is possible because the cumulative probability before and after the updating is not based on the same information, hence not on the same probabilistic model.

The reliability of deteriorating structures at time t is quantified by the probability that failure occurs within the period leading up to time t. This probability is often referred to as cumulative failure probability and is equal to the cumulative distribution function of the time to failure. In structural reliability, an estimate of the cumulative failure probability is obtained based on probabilistic Engineering models of the deterioration processes and structural performance. Information on the condition and the loading contained in inspection and monitoring data can be included in the probability estimate through Bayesian updating. Conditioning the
probability of failure on the inspection or monitoring outcomes available at time t (e.g. detections or no detection of damages) can lead to a reduction in that probability.
Such a drop in the cumulative failure probability might seem counterintuitive since the cumulative failure probability is a non-decreasing function of time. In this paper, we illustrate—with the help of a numerical example—that such a drop is possible because the cumulative probability before and after the updating is not based on the same information, hence not on the same probabilistic model.

Fatigue is one of the main deterioration processes affecting the performance of welded steel support structures of wind turbines in offshore wind farms. In this contribution, we present a probabilistic physics-based fatigue deterioration model of a wind farm that accounts for the stochastic dependence among the fatigue behavior of different hotspots at turbine and wind farm level. The dependence exists because of uncertain common influencing factors such as similar material properties, fabrication qualities and load conditions. These system effects signify that an inspection of one hotspot provides indirect information of the condition of the remaining hotspots and thus enable an optimization of the inspection effort for a wind farm.
The wind farm model consists of two levels: A turbine support structure (level 1 system model) is represented by its fatigue hotspots and their stochastic dependence. The fatigue performance of a hotspot is described by a probabilistic fracture mechanics (FM) fatigue model. The probabilistic model of the parameters of the FM fatigue model is calibrated based on design data and is thus directly linked to the design of the turbine support structures. Dependence among the fatigue performances of different hotspots in a turbine support structure is modeled by introducing correlations between the stochastic parameters of the FM fatigue models. A wind farm (level 2 system model) consists of different turbine support structures (level 1 system models). Additional correlations are introduced at wind farm level to account for the dependence among the fatigue behavior of hotspots belonging to different turbine support structures. The wind farm model enables the computation of (marginal) hotspot fatigue reliabilities, system fatigue reliabilities of individual turbine support structures and the system fatigue reliability of an entire wind farm. The probabilistic model of the parameters of the two-level system model can be consistently updated with inspection outcomes using Bayesian methods. The updated probabilistic model of the model parameters then forms the basis for updating the estimates of the fatigue reliabilities.
We implement the wind farm model in a software tool named SysPark. The tool provides the means for planning inspections at wind farm level using an adaptive reliability-based threshold approach. In this approach, the first inspection campaign is planned in the year before the fatigue failure rates of the hotspots with the lowest fatigue reliabilities exceed a threshold failure rate. Once inspection results become available, the probabilistic model of the parameters of the wind farm model is updated. If repairs are performed, the wind farm model is additionally modified to describe the behavior of the repaired hotspots. The updated and modified model then enables the planning of the next inspection campaign and so on. The software tool is demonstrated in a case study considering a generic wind farm consisting of turbines with jacket support structures.

There is a strong need for cost-effective mitigation measures for
turnouts. SBB has initiated a series of examinations using different methodologies to gain a deeper understanding of the excitation mechanisms at low frequencies, in addition to that obtained in the RIVAS project. To date it is not yet clear what constitutes a complete measurement data set that would enable understanding most of the vibration excitation mechanisms in turnouts. Increasing vibration at turnouts in comparison to normal track is observed for all measured frequencies.
The different methodologies are presented in the paper. Under-sleeper pads (USP) are a cost-effective method to reduce vibration at frequencies above 63 Hz (1/3 octave), but there is probably no improvement for frequencies below 63 Hz. A first test of new frog geometry did not show relevant improvements in Vibration emission in comparison to a reference frog geometry. Axle box acceleration measurements are an interesting method to identify defects in a turnout. A specialized measurement system of rail roughness could identify certain geometry Problem areas for some frogs. Noise increases also are observed at turnouts for frequencies ranging between 80 to 1000 Hz. The use of railway source models to calculate
contact forces for ballasted track and turnouts seems promising, in particular for understanding the influence of ground.

The present contribution evaluates four measuring series made by the Federal Institute of Material Research and Testing for the relations between train speed and ground vibration amplitudes. This experimental evaluation is supported by the simulation of the train passages at the different sites by using appropriate excitation mechanisms and forces as well as layered soil models which have been derived from impact measurements at each site.

This document presents the specification for the execution and evaluation of high-speed tensile tests on reinforcement bar coupler systems. This specification was developed at BAM - Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Germany) - following test principles from related international standards.
The present document represents the latest status of the test specification. It is noted that until 2010 the test procedure was characterised on a test velocity based on L0. In an improved test conception and after intensive investigations in cooperation with industry partners, this procedure has been updated to consider instead a test velocity based on Lr, since this warrants more comparable and meaningful results.

Fault detection for linear parameter varying systems under changes in the process noise covariance
(2020)

Detecting changes in the eigenstructure of linear systems is a comprehensively investigated subject. In particular, change detection methods based on hypothesis testing using Gaussian residuals have been developed previously. In such residuals, a reference model is confronted to data from the current system. In this paper, linear output-only systems depending on a varying external physical parameter are considered. These systems are driven by process noise, whose covariance may also vary between measurements. To deal with the varying parameter, an interpolation approach is pursued, where a limited number of reference models – each estimated from data measured in a reference state – are interpolated to approximate an adequate reference model for the current parameter. The problem becomes more complex when the different points of interpolation correspond to different noise conditions. Then conflicts may arise between the detection of changes in the eigenstructure due to a fault and the detection of changes due to different noise conditions. For this case, a new change detection approach is developed based on the interpolation of the eigenstructure at the reference points. The resulting approach is capable of change detection when both the external physical parameter and the process noise conditions are varying. This approach is validated on a numerical simulation of a mechanical system.

Fault detection for linear parameter varying systems under changes in the process noise covariance
(2020)

Detecting changes in the eigenstructure of linear systems is a comprehensively investigated subject. In particular, change detection methods based on hypothesis testing using Gaussian residuals have been developed previously. In such residuals, a reference model is confronted to data from the current system. In this paper, linear output-only Systems depending on a varying external physical parameter are considered. These systems are driven by process noise, whose covariance may also vary between measurements. To deal with the varying parameter, an interpolation approach is pursued, where a limited number of reference models { each estimated from data measured in a reference state { are interpolated to approximate an adequate reference model for the current parameter. The problem becomes more complex when the different points of interpolation correspond to different noise conditions. Then con icts May arise between the detection of changes in the eigenstructure due to a fault and the detection of changes due to different noise conditions. For this case, a new change detection approach is developed based on the interpolation of the eigenstructure at the reference points. The resulting approach is capable of change detection when both the external physical parameter and the process noise conditions are varying. This approach is validated on a numerical simulation of a mechanical system.

his presentation deals with the phenomenology and design of pile foundations for offshore wind turbines, and is divided into two lectures.
The second lecture continues with the case of laterally loaded offshore piles, which bears most relevance for the case of the monopile foundations. Here again, a clear separation between physical reality and design methods is intended.
Finally, the last part of the second lecture introduces several advanced topics which lie outside the classical design approaches, namely the hydromechanical coupling effects (i.e. the excess pore-pressure generation around the monopiles), the cyclic pile fatigue and the so-called pile setup (i.e. the time effects on the axial pile capacity). The relevance of the latter two topics is illustrated with experimental results from a field testing campaign on real large-scale piles.

This presentation deals with the phenomenology and design of pile foundations for offshore wind turbines, and is divided into two lectures.
The first lecture presents a brief introduction to the context and peculiarities of such foundations, and then focuses on the particular case of axially loaded piles. This part is most relevant for the relatively slender piles of the multi-pile substructures (i.e. jackets and tripods). A clear distinction between physical phenomenology and practical design is drawn here.

The dynamic behaviour of slab and ballast tracks has been investigated by measurements and calculations. Hammer impacts and train passages have been analysed. Measurements have been performed by geophones (velocity transducers) which have been time-integrated to displacements. The calculations are done in frequency-wavenumber domain for multi-beam-on-continuous soil models. The characteristics of the different tracks and track elements have been established in theory and experiment. The frequency-dependent compliances (displacement transfer functions) show clear rail-on-rail-pad resonances or highly damped track-soil resonances. Compared to the rail and sleeper, the track plate has much lower amplitudes. The slab track has usually the highest rail amplitudes due to soft rail pads. The train passage yields track displacements which are a superposition of the axle loads from the two neighbouring axles of a bogie and from the two bogies of two neighbouring carriages. This global behaviour is characteristic for the track plate of the slab track whereas the rails of the slab and the ballast track behave more local with only one bogie of influence. The measurements agree very well with the theory of the continuous soil in case of the six measured slab tracks and acceptably well for the six measured ballast tracks. The measurements allow to find appropriate model parameters and to check the models, for example the Winkler model of the soil has been found less appropriate as it reacts more locally.

Grouted connections are intensively used in offshore rigs, platforms as well as jacket and monopile offshore wind turbine structures. Being located in remote offshore conditions, these connections can experience considerable adverse loading during their lifetimes. Degradation was reported inside similar connections, which were installed in the last three decades. Grouting in the offshore sites may often be proven difficult, which eventually leads to reduced load-bearing capacity of connections in the long run. Thus, repair and rehabilitation of such connections should be planned ahead to minimize operational delays and costs. In this study, scaled grouted connections were manufactured using a novel mould, whose integrity were monitored using digital image correlation (DIC). The connections were loaded under static load to visualize the main failure pattern using distributed fibre optic sensors and acoustic emission (AE) analysis. Grouted connections were then repaired using a cementitious injectable grout. The effectiveness of the grout injection was monitored using dye penetration technique. Finally, specimens are reloaded to identify the potential of such repair for grouted connections.

Design challenges for Offshore wind-farms. From foundation mechanics to wind-farm aerodynamics
(2021)

This talk provides a brief introduction on general engineering design challenges for the offshore wind energy production. Some general features of the offshore wind-energy field from a civil engineering perspective are firstly presented, followed by a brief discussion of some of the main geomechanical issues for the foundation of the offshore turbines into the seabed.
In the following part, an overview of relevant fluid-structure interactions and some options for an efficient numerical analysis are provided, where the hydromechanical Wave–Tower interaction is firstly discussed. Then, some general aspects of the windfarm aerodynamics are introduced. On the one hand, some modelling possibilities for the wake analysis of single turbines and turbine groups are discussed. And on the other hand the relevance of such analyses for a proper windfarm layout optimization is pointed out.
In particular, this talk shows that: i) The bearing capacity of turbine multi-pile foundations can degrade under cyclic loading (waves, wind, …), while for monopile foundations cyclic hydromechanical coupling effects may take place, which may lead to a foundation softening; ii) Numerical analysis of a turbine’s interaction with wind/waves is useful and affordable, while simplified models can already provide a useful insight into the windfarm aerodynamics. iii) Turbulent wake analysis is very relevant for the windfarm layout.

Many measurements of train induced ground vibrations show high amplitudes for a certain mid-frequency range. This ground vibration component cannot be well explained by dynamic loads of the train. Many characteristics indicate that the axle impulses, which are scattered by an irregular soil, are the excitation. This new understanding of railway-induced ground vibration is verified by numerical analysis. The response of the regular homogeneous and irregular inhomogeneous soils has been calculated by the finite-element method in frequency domain. A specific superposition of the impulse responses has been invented including time shift, axle sequence, track filter and hanning filter. The superposition yields the quasi-static component of the ground vibration which is restricted to very low frequencies and to the close near-field of the track. In case of an irregular soil of which the stiffness varies randomly in space, the superposition yields a mid-frequency ground vibration component from the scattering of the axle impulses. The existence and the importance of this component can thus be demonstrated by the calculations. Some rules of the influence of distance, train speed, soil stiffness, strength and width of the stiffness variation have been derived from the calculations. Many measurements show the unique explanation of the mid-frequency ground vibration component by the scattered axle impulses.

We present here a set of conceptual and numerical tools for a micromechanical simulation of general erosion problems involving fluid-saturated granular assemblies, whether frictional or cohesive. We propose a parallel computation using graphical processing units (GPUs) to treat large numbers of degrees of freedom with conventional desktop computers.
The fluid phase is here simulated with a particle-resolved approach in the frame of the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) while the granular solid phase is modelled as a collection of discrete particles from a Molecular Dynamics DEM perspective. The range of possible material behaviors for the solid granular phase is intended here to cover a broad spectrum from purely frictional to viscous cohesive materials with either brittle or transient debonding features. Specific details of the implementation and some validation cases will be put forward.
To conclude we provide some exemplary applications in the field of soil erosion along with details on the parallel performance of the models. The results show that a micromechanical approach can be feasible and useful in practice, providing meaningful insights into complex phenomena like the erosion threshold and kinetics of weakly cemented soils.

A study on building vibrations has been performed by finite element calculations. Family houses, multi-storey residential buildings, office buildings and office towers have been modelled in detail. The frequency-dependent response due to a free-field excitation has been evaluated for walls, columns and floors. The ratio of building amplitudes to free-field amplitudes starts with uB/u0 = 1 at zero frequency and is usually lower than 1 at 50 Hz, the end of the frequency range considered here. In between, amplifications occur due to several reasons. There are „soil resonances“ where the whole building is vibrating on the compliant soil, “column resonances” where the upper storeys are vibrating on the compliant columns, and the “floor resonances” where the floors are vibrating excited by their supports. Results are presented for all building types, but a special focus is set on office buildings. A parameter study shows the influence of the stiffness of the soil, the number of storeys, and the width of the building. It has been found that the “soil resonance” is strongly modified by the low-frequency floor resonances for the normal office building. The main resonance of a twenty-storey office tower is determined equally by the “soil mode” and the “column mode”. It is an important observation for these office buildings that the resonances can differ for different parts of the building such as the centre, the edge, the corner, and the core of the building. This leads to non-uniform vibration modes across the building, which look like another type of “floor resonance” and which have been observed in several real building projects. Experimental results will be shown which can confirm the calculated phenomena.

Prediction of dynamic effects of reinforced concrete structures under impact loading is a technical challenge. This is a consequence of the great variability of the physical properties resulting from the wide adaptability of reinforced concrete and a consequence of the wide range of impact loading. Experiments and numerical investigations are normally used on a small scale to address the problem. In this paper, impact tests on reinforced conrete plates with the lateral dimensions of 1.5 m x 1.5 m and a thickness of 30 cm are presented. In bending reinforcement, besides the velocity two properties are varied, the diameter and the spatial distribution of the rebars. Experiments are performed at the Otto-Mohr-Laboratory of the Institute of Concrete Structures of the Technische Universit¨at Dresden. Due to the accelerated fall of the impactor the velocity ranges between 20 and 70 m/s. In addition to the measured quantities such as bearing forces, accelerations are also measured at 4 different positions on and under the plate, as well as the deflection at several positions. The measured data are used for the analysis of the damage form and the numerical examinations with the program Ansys Autodyn and the material model after Drucker-Prager.
Numerical investigations support the tests, with detailed analysis of individual effects. These numerical computations and the planar tomographic investigations were carried out at BAM in Berlin. With the help of planar tomographic evaluation, the damaged structure is
made visible and compared with the numerical results. Influences of the bending reinforcement are explained on the basis of damage evaluation in the local area and on selected measured values. In addition to the test evaluation, the tomographic and numerical methods are presented.

At the Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM) full scale specimens for nuclear transport and storage containers (casks) are tested for their structural integrity in a series of drop tests on the Test Site Technical Safety in Horstwalde, 50 km south of Berlin. These drop tests cause a major stress not only on the casks, but also on the steel tower structure of the test facility, itself. The load pattern makes the structure very interesting for detailed investigation. The focus of the monitoring lies on the bolted joints of the flange connections that are a typical connection for cylindrical elements if welding is technical or economical unfavorable. The definition of the monitoring takes was done by investigating the existing documents and inspection results accompanied by building an initial digital representation of the structure, consisting of two finite element (FE) models and a geometrical 3D point cloud representation. As a first step the structures behavior during static and dynamic loading was analyzed using measurement data and an updated numerical FE Model. The idea behind is to use models for a digital planning and operation/evaluation of the structural health monitoring. A static FE simulation and a dynamic FE simulation are generated, to investigate how the structure behaves under the load conditions.

Inspection and maintenance contribute significantly to the lifetime cost of bridges. There is significant potential in using information obtained through structural health monitoring to update predictive models of the condition and performance of such structures, and thus ena-ble an improved decision-making regarding inspection and maintenance activities. Within the AISTEC project funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, we develop vibration-based structural health monitoring systems aimed at continuously provid-ing information on the structural condition of bridges. Environmental variations such as changing ambient temperatures can significantly influence the dynamic characteristics of bridges and thus mask the effect of structural changes and damages. It remains a challenge to account for such influences in structural health monitoring. To study the effect of ambient temperatures on the dynamic characteristics of beam structures, we monitor the vibration response of a reinforced concrete beam in the uncracked and cracked state at varying tem-peratures in a climate chamber. We postulate a set of competing parameterized probabilistic structural models, which explicitly account for the effect of varying ambient temperatures on the mechanical properties of the system. We then combine the information provided by the structural models with the information contained in the recorded vibration data to learn the parameters of the temperature-dependent structural models and infer the plausible state of the beam using Bayesian system identification and model class selection.

State of the art and development perspectives of deep foundations for offshore wind converters
(2020)

This presentation provides an overview of the main geotechnical aspects associated with deep foundations in the context of offshore wind generation. The most common deep foundation typologies (large diameter monopiles and multipile typologies) as well as new trends under development (e.g. suction buckets) and their current limits will be briefly described. The talk concludes with a brief review of advanced topics not covered in classical pile design, such as hydromechanical coupling effects (pore pressure generation), cyclic accumulation of deformations, cyclic degradation of axial capacity or pile-setup gains.

Fault detection for linear parameter varying systems under changes in the process noise covariance
(2020)

Detecting changes in the eigenstructure of linear systems is a comprehensively investigated subject. In particular, change detection methods based on hypothesis testing using Gaussian residuals have been developed previously. In such residuals, a reference model is confronted to data from the current system. In this paper, linear output-only systems depending on a varying external physical parameter are considered. These systems are driven by process noise, whose covariance may also vary between measurements. To deal with the varying parameter, an interpolation approach is pursued, where a limited number of reference models -- each estimated from data measured in a reference state -- are interpolated to approximate an adequate reference model for the current parameter. The problem becomes more complex when the different points of interpolation correspond to different noise conditions. Then conflicts may arise between the detection of changes in the eigenstructure due to a fault and the detection of changes due to different noise conditions. For this case, a new change detection approach is developed based on the interpolation of the eigenstructure at the reference points. The resulting approach is capable of change detection when both the external physical parameter and the process noise conditions are varying. This approach is validated on a numerical simulation of a mechanical system.

For the generation of renewable energy offshore wind farms play an important role. The majority of these wind generators are connected to steel foundation structures. Steady increasing power output of these wind turbines leads to new challenges as well for engineers of the related support structures. Caused by the high-cyclic loading of these structures by wind and waves fatigue plays a very important role. Besides the consideration of fatigue within the design process it is additionally an important topic and challenge to monitor the existing steel structures relating to potential fatigue cracks occurring during their lifetime. This plays a role for a fundamental understanding of mechanisms as investigated in testing but also for inspection in real structures.
Since the structures of the offshore wind generators are very large and in addition partially under water effective and reliable methods for fatigue crack detection are required. This contribution will present results of recent investigations on different crack detection methods applied on high-cycle fatigue tests on small welded steel samples as well as on welded steel components. The comparison of these measurements will show what are the advantages and disadvantages of the different methods and which method is potentially more suitable for the application on real offshore wind structures. It is outlined where challenges for detection methods exist.
Furthermore, in this context the resulting challenges for the execution of material testing especially caused by the increasing dimensions of wind energy converters will by exemplarily presented.

This contribution intends to give an overview on the vibration behaviour of slab tracks in comparison of measurements and calculations and also by comparison of different track types at more than ten different measuring sites.
In theory, tracks on continuous soil are calculated by the frequency-wavenumber domain method. In experiment, geophone measurements are transformed to displacement results. Two aspects of track behaviour are considered, the frequency-dependant compliance of the track, measured by hammer impact, and the deflection under a passing axle load. In theory, the response to a single axle can be calculated, whereas in experiment, only the passage of the whole train can be measured. For comparison of theory and experiment, the calculated deflection under a single axle is superposed to get the response of the whole train. As a result, the slab track characteristics are completely different from the ballast track characteristics where each axle can be seen in the time histories. The slab track has a more global behaviour where only a whole bogie can be found in the track response and moreover, the two neighbouring bogies are not completely separated. The measurement of the different track elements (rail, sleeper, track plate, base layer) and the frequency-dependant compliances with possible resonances yield further information About the properties of the track elements. The calculations show that the soil has the dominant influence on the amplitudes and the width of the track-plate displacements. In the measurement results, the following
parameters are analysed: slab track vs. ballast track, different types of slab tracks, damaged slab tracks, different trains, switches at different measuring points, voided sleepers, an elastic layer, the mortar layer, and different soils at different places. Finally, a good agreement between measured and calculated results is found for the normal and some special (damaged, floating) slab tracks.

Monitoringsysteme erfassen kontinuierlich Bauwerksdaten wie z.B. Bauwerksbeschleunigungen, auf deren Grundlage Bauwerksschäden mit Hilfe von SHM-Methoden quantifiziert werden können. Mit den gewonnenen Informationen über den aktuellen Bauwerkszustand können Vorhersagen des Bauwerkszustandes und der Bauwerkszuverlässigkeit aktualisiert und erforderliche Inspektionen und Instandhaltungsmaßnahmen vorausschauend geplant werden. Im BMBF-Forschungsvorhaben AISTEC entwickeln der Fachbereich 7.2 „Ingenieurbau“ innovative Monitoringverfahren zur Systemidentifikation und automatischen Detektion, Lokalisierung und Quantifizierung von Schäden an Infrastrukturbauwerken anhand von gemessenen dynamischen und statischen Bauwerksdaten. Im Rahmen dieses Projektes werden die Verfahren an der Maintalbrücke bei Gemünden angewendet, welche Teil der ICE-Strecke Hannover-Würzburg ist. In diesem Vortrag wird das für die Maintalbrücke Gemünden geplante und umgesetzte Monitoingsystem vorgestellt.

Today, short- and long-term structural health monitoring (SHM) of bridge infrastructures and their safe, reliable and cost-effective maintenance has received considerable attention. From a surveying or civil engineer’s point of view, vibration-based SHM can be conducted by inspecting the changes in the global dynamic behaviour of a structure, such as natural frequencies (i. e. eigenfrequencies), mode shapes (i. e. eigenforms) and modal damping, which are known as modal parameters. This research work aims to propose a robust and automatic vibration analysis procedure that is so-called robust time domain modal parameter identification (RT-MPI) technique. It is novel in the sense of automatic and reliable identification of initial eigenfrequencies even closely spaced ones as well as robustly and accurately estimating the modal parameters of a bridge structure using low numbers of cost-effective micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) accelerometers. To estimate amplitude, frequency, phase shift and damping ratio coefficients, an observation model consisting of: (1) a damped harmonic oscillation model, (2) an autoregressive model of coloured measurement noise and (3) a stochastic model in the form of the heavy-tailed family of scaled t-distributions is employed and jointly adjusted by means of a generalised expectation maximisation algorithm. Multiple MEMS as part of a geo-sensor network were mounted at different positions of a bridge structure which is precalculated by means of a finite element model (FEM) analysis. At the end, the estimated eigenfrequencies and eigenforms are compared and validated by the estimated parameters obtained from acceleration measurements of high-end accelerometers of type PCB ICP quartz, velocity measurements from a geophone and the FEM analysis. Additionally, the estimated eigenfrequencies and modal damping are compared with a well-known covariance driven stochastic subspace identification approach, which reveals the superiority of our proposed approach. We performed an experiment in two case studies with simulated data and real applications of a footbridge structure and a synthetic bridge. The results show that MEMS accelerometers are suitable for detecting all occurring eigenfrequencies depending on a sampling frequency specified. Moreover, the vibration analysis procedure demonstrates that amplitudes can be estimated in submillimetre range accuracy, frequencies with an accuracy better than 0.1 Hz and damping ratio coefficients with an accuracy better than 0.1 and 0.2 % for modal and system damping, respectively.

A simple and fast prediction scheme is presented for train induced ground and building vibrations. Simple models such as (1-dimensional) transfer matrices are used for the vehicle-track-soil interaction and for the building-soil interaction. The wave propagation through layered soils is approximated by a frequency-dependent homogeneous half-space. The prediction is divided into the parts “emission” (excitation by railway traffic), “transmission” (wave propagation through the soil) and “immission” (transfer into a building). The link between the modules is made by the excitation force between emission and transmission, and by the free-field vibration between transmission and immission. All formula for the simple vehicle-track, soil and building models are given in this article. The behaviour of the models is demonstrated by typical examples, that is the mitigation of train vibrations by elastic track elements, the low- and high-frequency cut-offs characteristic for layered soils, and the interacting soil, wall and floor resonances of multi-storey buildings. It is shown that the results of the simple prediction models can well represent the behaviour of the more time-consuming detailed models, the finite-element boundary-element models of the track, the wavenumber integrals for the soil, and the three-dimensional finite-element models of the building. In addition, measurement examples are given for each part of the prediction confirming that the methods provide reasonable results. As the prediction models are fast in calculation, many predictions can be done, for example to assess the environmental effect along a new railway line. The simple models have the additional advantage that the user needs to know only a minimum of parameters. So, the prediction is fast and user-friendly, but also theoretically and experimentally well-founded.

The current practice of operating and maintaining deteriorating structural systems ensures acceptable levels of structural reliability, but it is not clear how efficient it is. Changing the current prescriptive approach to a risk-based approach has great potential to enable a more efficient management of such systems. Risk-based optimization of operation and maintenance strategies identifies the strategy that optimally balances the cost for controlling deterioration in a structural system with the achieved risk reduction. Inspections and monitoring are essential parts of operation and maintenance strategies. They are typically performed to reduce the uncertainty in the structural condition and inform decisions on future operation and maintenance actions. In risk-based optimization of operation and maintenance strategies, Bayesian updating is used to include information contained in inspection and monitoring data in the prediction of the structural reliability. All computations need to be repeated many times for different potential inspection and monitoring outcomes. This motivates the development of robust and efficient approaches to this computationally challenging task.
The reliability of deteriorating structural systems is time-variant because the loads on them and their capacities change with time. In most practical applications, the reliability analysis of deteriorating structural systems can be approached by dividing their lifetime into discrete time intervals. The time-variant reliability problem can then be represented by a series of time-invariant reliability problems. Using this methodology as a starting point, this thesis proposes a novel approach to compute the time-variant reliability of deteriorating structural systems for which inspection and monitoring data are available. The problem is formulated in a nested way in which the prediction of the structural condition is separated from the computation of the structural reliability conditional on the structural condition. Information on the structural condition provided by inspections and monitoring is included in the reliability assessment through Bayesian updating of the system deterioration model employed to predict the structural condition. The updated system reliability is obtained by coupling the updated deterioration model with a probabilistic structural model utilized to calculate the failure probability conditional on the structural condition. This approach is the first main outcome of this thesis and termed nested reliability analysis (NRA) approach. It is demonstrated in two numerical examples considering inspected and monitored steel structures subject to high-cycle fatigue.
An alternative – recently developed – approach, which also follows the strategy of discretizing time, describes deteriorating structural systems with hierarchical dynamic Bayesian networks (DBN). DBN combined with approximate or exact inference algorithms also enable the computation of the time-variant reliability of deteriorating structural systems conditional on information provided by inspection and monitoring data. In this thesis – as a proof of concept – a software prototype is developed based on the DBN approach, which can be used to assess the reliability of a corroding concrete box girder for which half-cell potential measurements are available. This is the second main outcome of this thesis.
Both approaches presented in this thesis enable an integral reliability analysis of inspected and monitored structures that accounts for system effects arising from (a) the correlation among deterioration states of different structural elements, (b) the interaction between element deterioration and system failure, and (c) the indirect information gained on the condition of all unobserved structural elements from inspecting or monitoring the condition of some structural elements. Thus, both approaches enable a systemwide risk-based optimization of operation and maintenance strategies for deteriorating structural systems.
The NRA approach can be implemented relatively easily with subset simulation, which is a sequential Monte Carlo method suitable for estimating rare event probabilities. Subset simulation is robust and considerably more efficient than crude Monte Carlo simulation. It is, however, still sampling-based and its efficiency is thus a function of the number of inspection and monitoring outcomes, as well as the value of the simulated event probabilities. The current implementation of the NRA approach performs separate subset simulation runs to estimate the reliability at different points in time. The efficiency of the NRA approach with subset simulation can be significantly improved by exploiting the fact that failure events in different years are nested. The lifetime reliability of deteriorating structural systems can thus be computed in reverse chronological order in a single subset simulation run.
The implementation of the DBN approach is much more demanding than the implementation of the NRA approach but it has two main advantages. Firstly, the graphical format of the DBN facilitates the presentation of the model and the underlying assumptions to stakeholders who are not experts in reliability analysis. Secondly, it can be combined with exact inference algorithms. In this case, its efficiency neither depends on the number of inspection and monitoring outcomes, nor on the value of the event probabilities to be calculated. However, in contrast to the NRA approach with subset simulation, the DBN approach with exact inference imposes restrictions on the number of random variables and the dependence structure that can be implemented in the model.

This article deals with two topics of vehicle-track-soil interaction, the mitigation of railway induced ground vibration by soft track elements, and the identification of track damage. Theoretical results have been achieved by a combined finite-element boundary-element method (FEBEM). The theoretical results are confronted with measurements at four sites. Improved mitigation effects have been found for soft rail pads under heavy sleepers. The insertion loss, however, can be too optimistic if a strong vehicle track resonance occurs for the un-isolated reference track. Two measurement sites show this strong vehicle-track resonance at about 80 Hz, which has been approximated by using the results of a wide parameter study including the rail pad, ballast, and soil stiffness, as well as the ballast model and the soil layering. – The detection of slab track damage is mainly based on the differences of the receptance or compliance functions. Theoretical results have been confirmed by measurements at one site where a loss of contact between track plate and base layer was visible. Measurements at a second site with a hidden damage have been compared with the theoretical results of a loose sleeper. The differences between intact (or repaired) and damaged tracks are strong enough to encourage the further development of this method for the identification of track damages.

In the last three decades, the vibrations of many floors and bridges have been measured. The contribution shows some evaluation methods, experimental results and some modelling and theoretical results. Simple evaluation methods have been developed for single and coupled floors. Two coupled beams have been measured in good agreement with the theory. A more complex coupling model has been found for a large wooden floor in a castle consisting of six floor bays which correlates well with the measurements. Damaged and intact poles have been tested by their natural frequencies and damping values, and a fair correlation between the degree of damage and the shift of the frequency. Road bridges have been analysed in detail and some examples are presented. Railway bridges and trains are studied for resonant excitation. The risk of resonance can be estimated in frequency domain by using axle-sequence spectra of the train and the natural frequencies of the bridge. A measurement example shows the amplification, but even stronger the cancellation of the subsequent axle responses. Several high-speed trains and freight trains have been analysed for their potential resonance amplification.

The passage of the train is dominated by the impulses of the static axle loads. The response of the regular homogeneous and irregular soils has been calculated by the finite-element method in frequency domain. The superposition of the impulse responses yields the quasi-static component of the ground vibration which is restricted to very low frequencies and to the close near-field of the track. In case of an irregular soil or ballast of which the stiffness varies randomly in space, a mid-frequency ground vibration component is generated by the scattering of the axle impulses. Measurements will be shown which prove the existence of the mid-frequency ground vibration component and the unique explanation by the scattered axle impulses: many international measurements with a raised mid-frequency component, axle-box measurements with a too low mid-frequency dynamic load, amplitude-speed dependencies which are incompatible with irregularity-induced dynamic loads, and ground vibration reductions due to stiff track elements.

Planar tomography and numerical analysis for damage characterization of impact loaded RC plates
(2020)

The damage analysis of reinforced concrete (RC) is of high interest for reasons of effective maintenance and structural safe-ty of buildings. The damage structures of RC plates loaded by an impact were investigated, applying X-ray planar tomogra-phy and finite element method (FEM). Planar tomography allows getting three-dimensional information of the RC elements and the damage including crack, spalling and scabbing. The FEM model validated on the tomography data justifies the appli-cation for further predictions of the damage description. In this study, we investigated concrete plates of three different thick-ness subjected to impacts at different low- and medium-velocity, whereby the used impactor had a flat tip, which resulted in small penetrations on the front side and scabbing on the rear side. In order to quantify the damage, the damage volume and its distribution through the plate were computed and the correlations between degree of damage and impact velocity were found out.

Due to the wide range of applications, the easy production and the large field of use, reinforced concrete (RC) is a widespread building material. This variety of applications is reflected in a wide range of physical material properties. Not only therefor it still is a technical challenge to provide all necessary test conditions for experimentally reproducing dynamic effects under impact loading of RC structures. In this paper we present investigations on the thicknesses of RC plates under low and medium high velocity impact loading by a flat-tipped impactor. The planar tomography setup at BAM is used to visualize the impact damage and to characterize the damage features such as cracks, scabbing and spalling. Further, the comparison of tomography results with those of an applied numeric simulation analysis is used to verify the numeric models for future damage prognosis under impact loading. Using the results of both, the tomographic as well as the FE analysis, different damage features were investigated and compared regarding their validity. Crack damage plays a leading part and the significance of summarized crack values as well as their distribution is analyzed. The total damage value but also the determined damage distribution both provide an input for describing damage as a function of the impactor velocity and plate thickness.

Deep foundations for offshore wind turbines. Lecture 2: lateral behaviour and advanced topics
(2020)

This presentation deals with the phenomenology and design of pile foundations for offshore wind turbines, and is divided into two lectures. The second lecture continues with the case of lateraly loaded offshore piles, which bears most relevance for the case of the monopile foundations. Here again, a clear separation between physical reality and design methods is intended.
Finally, the last part of the second lecture introduces several advanced topics which lie outside the classical design approaches, namely the hydromechanical coupling effects (i.e. the excess pore-pressure generation around the monopiles), the cyclic pile fatigue and the so-called pile setup (i.e. the time effects on the axial pile capacity). The relevance of the latter two topics is illustrated with experimental results from a field testing campaign on real large-scale piles.

Classic non-destructive fatigue crack detection methods reveal the state of the fatigue damage evolution at the moment of application, generally not under operational conditions. The here introduced crack luminescence method realizes a clear visibility of the occurred and growing crack in loaded components during operation. Different established experiments show that due to the sensitive coating a crack Formation can be detected even in early stage under the premise the crack reached the surface. The coating consists of two layers with different properties and functions. The bottom layer emits light as fluorescence under UV radiation. The top layer covers the fluorescing one and prevents the emitting of light in case of no damage at the surface. In case of surface crack occurrence, the luminescent light is clearly noticeable by visual observations and also by standard camera equipment which makes automated crack detection possible as well. It is expected that crack luminescence can increase structural safety as well as reduce costs and time for inspections and preventive maintenance.

Kontinuierliche sensorbasierte Bauwerksmessungen leisten einen wichtigen Beitrag zur Sicherheit von Verkehrsbauwerken. Hierzu werden im Vorhaben AISTEC Referenzbauwerke und Referenzverfahren untersucht mit Schwerpunkt auf den Einfluss klimatischer Bedingungen. Der Vortrag stellt den aktuellen Projektstand des FB 7.2 vor.

Die gesamte Prognose wurde rechnerisch erfasst. Die Rechenverfahren sind einfach und schnell. Die Emission und die Immission verwendet Übertragungsmatrizen. Die Transmissionsrechnung beruht auf der Dispersion der Rayleighwelle. Die Verknüpfung erfolgt über die Anregungskraft auf den Boden und über die Freifeldamplitude am Gebäude.
Es sind viele Eingabemöglichkeiten für Messdaten vorgesehen. Messungen können von einem Ort auf einen anderen Ort übertragen werden.

This paper proposes a novel method to estimate the lateral displacement of high-rise structures under wind loads. The coefficient β(x) is firstly derived, reflecting the relation between the structural lateral dynamic displacement and the inclination angle at the height x of a structure. If the angle is small, it is the ratio between the structural fundamental mode shape and its first-order derivative without influence of external loads. Several dynamic experiments of structures are performed based on a laser remote sensing vibrometer and an inclinometer, which shows that the fundamental mode is dominated in the structural displacement response under different types of excitations. Once the coefficient β(x) is curve-fitted by measuring both the structural lateral dynamic displacement and the inclination angle synchronously, the real-time structural lateral displacement under operational conditions is estimated by multiplying the coefficient β(x) with the inclination angle. The advantage of the proposed method is that the coefficient β(x) can be identified by lateral dynamic displacement measured in high resolution by the remote sensing vibrometer, which is useful to reconstruct the displacement accurately by the inclination angle under operational conditions

The erosion of natural sediments by a superficial fluid flow is a generic situation in many usual geological or industrial contexts. However, there is still a lack of fundamental knowledge about erosional processes, especially concerning the role of internal cohesion and adhesive stresses on issues such as the critical flow conditions for the erosion onset or the kinetics of soil mass loss. This contribution investigates the influence of cohesion on the surface erosion by an impinging jet flow based on laboratory tests with artificially bonded granular materials. The model samples are made of spherical glass beads bonded either by solid bridges made of resin or by liquid bridges made of a highly viscous oil. To quantify the intergranular cohesion, the capillary forces of the liquid bridges are here estimated by measuring their main geometrical parameters with image-processing techniques and using well-known analytical expressions. For the solid bonds, the adhesive strength of the materials is estimated by direct measurement of the yield tensile forces and stresses at the particle and sample scales, respectively, with specific traction tests developed for this purpose. The proper erosion tests are then carried out in an optically adapted device that permits a direct visualization of the scouring process at the jet apex by means of the refractive index matching technique. On this basis, the article examines qualitatively the kinetics of the scour crater excavation for both scenarios, namely, for an intergranular cohesion induced by either liquid or solid bonds. From a quantitative perspective, the critical condition for the erosion onset is discussed specifically for the case of the solid bond cohesion. In this respect, we propose here a generalized form of the Shields criterion based on a common definition of a cohesion number from yield tensile values, derived at both micro- and macroscales. The article finally shows that the proposed form manages to reconcile the experimental data for cohesive and cohesionless materials, the latter in the form of the so-called Shields curve along with some previous results of the authors which have been appropriately revisited.

A strain-based automated operational modal analysis algorithm is proposed to track the long-term dynamic behavior of a horizontal wind turbine under operational conditions.
This algorithm is firstly validated by a scaled wind turbine model, and then it is applied to the dynamic strain responses recorded from a 5 MW wind turbine system. We observed variations in the fundamental frequency and 1f, 3f excitation frequencies due to the mass imbalance of the blades and aerodynamic excitation by the tower dam or tower wake. Inspection of the Campbell diagram revealed that the adverse resonance phenomenon and Sommerfeld effect causing excessive vibrations of the wind tower.

Eindimensionale Modelle des Gleises aus einem Schienenstützpunkt, zweidimensionale Modelle enthalten die Kraftverteilung der Schiene. Eindimensionale Modelle machen einen Fehler, weil sie eine zu große Fahrzeugmasse berücksichtigen. Man kann jedoch bei der Berechnung der Minderungswirkung von Gleiselementen eindimensionale Gleismodelle verwenden, um die Kraftübertragung des Gleises bzw. die Minderungswirkung des Gleises zu berechnen. Die Wechselwirkung mit dem Fahrzeug kann einfach mit der dynamischen Stützpunktsteifigkeit berechnet werden. Dabei muss die Stützpunktsteifigkeit mit einer charakteristischen Gleislänge multipliziert werden, die frequenz- und systemabhängig ist.

The train passages over intact or damaged slab tracks on different soils have been calculated by the finite-element boundary-element or the wavenumber-domain method. The influence of track and soil parameters on the distribution of the track displacements and the soil forces has been analysed. The measured and calculated displacement time histories of train passages could be used to identify track damages such as lose sleepers or a lose track plate. The time histories and spectra of the soil forces can explain the measured ground vibration reduction of slab tracks. The calculated displacement and force distributions of slab tracks on continuous soils do not fulfil the Winkler hypothesis and Winkler models should not be used for track analysis.

This article deals with the relevance and practical feasibility of micromechanical simulations for their application to general geomechanical problems involving fluid-saturated granular assemblies, whether frictional or cohesive. A set of conceptual and numerical tools is here presented, advocating for a parallel computation using graphical processing units (GPUs) to treat large numbers of degrees of freedom with conventional Desktop computers. The fluid phase is here simulated with a particle-resolved approach in the frame of the Lattice Botzmann Method (LBM) while the granular solid phase is modelled as a collection of discrete particles from a Molecular Dynamics DEM perspective. The range of possible material behaviours for the solid granular phase is intended here to cover a broad spectrum from purely frictional to viscous cohesive materials with either brittle or transient debonding features. Specific details of the implementation and some validation cases are put forward.
Finally, some exemplary applications in the fields of soil erosion and geotechnical profile installation are provided along with a discussion on the parallel performance of the presented models. The results show that a micromechanical approach can be feasible and useful in practice, providing meaningful insights into complex engineering problems like the erosion kinetics of a soil under an impinging jet or the penetration resistance of a deep foundation in a layered soil profile.

Subspace-based damage detection handling temperature effects and uncertainty in the reference
(2019)

Temperature variation can be a nuisance that perturbs vibration based structural health monitoring (SHM)approaches for civil engineering structures. In this paper, temperature affected vibration data is evaluated within a stochastic damage detection framework, which relies on a null space based residual. Besides two existing temperature rejection approaches – building a reference state from an averaging method or a piecewise method – a new approach is proposed, using model interpolation. In this approach, a general reference model is obtained from data in the reference state at several known reference temperatures. Then, for a particular tested temperature, a local reference model is derived from the general reference model. Thus, a well fitting reference null space for the formulation of a residual is available when new data is tested for damage detection at an arbitrary temperature. Particular attention is paid to the computation of the residual covariance, taking into account the uncertainty related to the null space matrix estimate. This improves the test performance, contrary to prior methods, for local and global damages, resulting in a higher probability of detection (PoD) for the new interpolation approach compared to previous approaches.

Das weltweite Wachstum der Windindustrie birgt neue Herausforderungen im speziellen für Betonstrukturen als Teil von Türmen, Verbindungselementen und Fundamenten von Windkraftanlagen. Aus der hochzyklischen Belastung in diesen Strukturen folgt eine große Bedeutung für das Thema mechanische Ermüdung. Eine gründliche Abschätzung der Ermüdungsfestigkeit von Beton bedarf deshalb einer zuverlässigen und experimentellen Datenbasis sowie der Entwicklung von standardisierten Prüfmethoden. Dieses Poster präsentiert erste Ergebnisse eines laufenden Forschungsprojektes an der BAM, welches Teil des vom Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Energie finanzierten Verbundvorhabens WinConFat ist. Das Teilvorhaben untersucht den Einfluss der Probengröße und Schlankheit von verschiedenen Proben auf das Ermüdungsverhalten von ultrahochfestem. Neben der Ermüdungsfestigkeit wird der Ermüdungsprozess mit verschiedenen Methoden charakterisiert. Dehnungsmessungen werden verwendet um den lastabhängigen E-Modul zu berechnen. Darüber hinaus geben die Ultraschall- und Schallemissionsprüfung einen tieferen Einblick in den Schädigungsprozess. Die Ergebnisse werden zu der Verbesserung von Bemessungsvorschriften beitragen.

Cerro do Jarau is a conspicuous, circular morpho‐structural feature in Rio Grande do Sul State (Brazil), with a central elevated core in the otherwise flat “Pampas” terrain typical for the border regions between Brazil and Uruguay. The structure has a diameter of approximately 13.5 km. It is centered at 30o12′S and 56o32′W and was formed on basaltic flows of the Cretaceous Serra Geral Formation, which is part of the Paraná‐Etendeka Large Igneous Province (LIP), and in sandstones of the Botucatu and Guará formations. The structure was first spotted on aerial photographs in the 1960s. Ever since, its origin has been debated, sometimes in terms of an endogenous (igneous) origin, sometimes as the result of an exogenous (meteorite impact) event. In recent years, a number of studies have been conducted in order to investigate its nature and origin. Although the results have indicated a possible impact origin, no conclusive evidence could be produced. The interpretation of an impact origin was mostly based on the morphological characteristics of the structure; geophysical data; as well as the occurrence of different breccia types; extensive deformation/silicification of the rocks within the structure, in particular the sandstones; and also on the widespread occurrence of low‐pressure deformation features, including some planar fractures (PFs). A detailed optical microscopic analysis of samples collected during a number of field campaigns since 2007 resulted in the disclosure of a large number of quartz grains from sandstone and monomict arenite breccia from the central part of the structure with PFs and feather features (FFs), as well as a number of quartz grains exhibiting planar deformation features (PDFs). While most of these latter grains only carry a single set of PDFs, we have observed several with two sets, and one grain with three sets of PDFs. Consequently, we here propose Cerro do Jarau as the seventh confirmed impact structure in Brazil. Cerro do Jarau, together with Vargeão Dome (Santa Catalina state) and Vista Alegre (Paraná State), is one of very few impact structures on Earth formed in basaltic rocks.

Due to the many possible applications, the uncomplicated production and the high application range, reinforced concrete is a widely used building material. This large range of physical material properties still poses an engineering challenge in determining all necessary requirements for predicting dynamic effects under impact load.
Many aspects of impact have already been examined and some correlations have been studied intensively. Examples are the work of Lastunen and Booker, who studied the influence of projectile properties on the impact form. Li has also investigated the local effects of an impact. The field of detailed damage analysis has not been in focus so far.
This presentation shows some studies in medium-velocity impact with the focus on post-impact damage evaluation. The impactor is modified so that the test plates show low penetration on the top and scabbing on the bottom. With the unique tomography lab test stand at BAM the plate is scanned after the impact and the damage is analyzed. Cracks and scabbing are made visible with a reconstruction. The comparison of simulation and tomography allows to create prognosis models for damage characterization.

In case one wants to predict or design the bearing capacity of a foundation pile and there are no possibilities to perform an in-situ test, such as a Cone Penetration Test, the pile bearing capacity is in most cases estimated with analytical formulas. The most known and used method is the Meyerhof method published some decades ago. There are also other design methods such as derived from a certain failure mechanism around the pile tip, which is, in most cases, wedge failure mechanism. This failure mechanism was originally developed for a shallow (infinite) strip foundation, though. Therefore, it represents a plane failure mechanism.
Numerical simulations on loaded foundation piles performed with the Plaxis software Show however, that the failure mechanism of a foundation pile represents a far more complex threedimensional failure mechanism around the pile tip.
In addition, the existing analytical methods for foundation piles are based on the vertical stresses in the soil, as if the failure mechanism is the same as of a shallow foundation. Numerical simulations, performed in Plaxis show that, not the vertical, but the horizontal stresses, play an important role on the pile bearing capacity. Plaxis represents the stresses in the soil by using the procedure. So, different horizontal soil stresses are obtained for different values of the lateral earth pressure coefficient. The results show that the pile tip bearing capacity depends strongly on the horizontal stresses in the soil, but only for. The same results were observed by using a Material Point Method (MPM). Consequently, the analytical methods should estimate the pile bearing.

Reinforced concrete (RC) is used as structural material in most diverse civil engineering applications. For the variability of its physical properties it is still an engineering challenge to meet all necessary requirements for the prediction of dynamic effects under impact loading. In this paper, investigations are shown within the scope of quantifying and evaluating the damage caused by an impact. The experimental investigations are performed in the field of low- and medium-velocity impact. The chosen flat nose shape results in small penetrations on the top side and scabbing on the bottom side. The plate is scanned with an adapted planar tomographic examination after the impact, and the damage is analysed, afterwards. Cracks and spalling are made visible with a reconstruction. The numerical model validated on the tomographic results justifies the application for further predictions of the damage description.

Severe mechanical fatigue conditions for worldwide proliferating windfarms are a Major challenge for high-performance concrete in towers, connecting joints and foundations of wind turbines. High-performance concrete offers potential for the application in offshore windfarms, not only regarding its good mechanical, but also chemical resistivity due to low diffusivity in the highly densified microstructure. For a more reliable fatigue assessment, monitoring based on nondestructive testing can be a valuable complement to design rules. Both approaches demand reliable experimental data, information about scalability and the development of standardized testing methods. This article presents results of an ongoing research program of BAM (Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung), which is a part of a joint national project (WinConFat) funded by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy. The subproject implemented by BAM examines the fatigue behavior in dependence of size and slenderness for varying concrete strength at different stress levels. Besides fatigue strength, nondestructive testing is carried out additionally.
Methods used are strain measurement and ultrasonic testing. The change of strain, stiffness and ultrasonic pulse velocity in the fatigue process is discussed. Results disclose a deeper insight into the damage process under cyclic loading of high-performance concrete and contribute to improve nondestructive monitoring.

The surface erosion of soil samples caused by an impinging jet can be analyzed using the jet erosion test (JET), a standard experimental test to characterize the erosion resistance of soils. This paper specifically addresses the flow characteristics of a laminar impinging jet over the irregular surface of granular beds to discuss the pertinence and relevance of commonly used empirical estimations based on a selfsimilar model of a free jet. The JET is here investigated at the microscale with a coupled fluid-particle flow numerical odel featuring the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) for the fluid phase combined with the discrete element method (DEM) for the mechanical behavior of the solid particles. The hydrodynamics of a laminar plane free jet are confronted with the results from a parametric study of jet impingement, both on solid smooth and fixed granular surfaces, that take into account variations in particle size, distance from jet origin, and jet Reynolds number. The flow characteristics at the bed surface are here quantified, including the maximal values in tangential velocity and wall shear stress, which can be regarded as the major cause of particle detachments under hydrodynamic solicitation. It is shown that the maximal velocity at the impinged surface can be described by the free jet self-similar model, provided that a simple empirical coefficient is introduced. Further, an expression is proposed for the maximal shear stress in laminar conditions, including a Blasius-like friction coefficient that is inversely proportional to the square root of the jet Reynolds number. To conclude, finally, the JET erosion of different cohesionless granular samples is analyzed, confirming that the threshold condition at the onset of granular motion is consistent with the Shields diagram and in close agreement with previous experimental results.

Die Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung hat in den letzten 30 Jahren an vielen Orten Bahnerschütterungen gemessen. Dabei wurden immer auch Versuche zur Bestimmung der Bodeneigen-schaften durchgeführt, meist mit Hammeranregung, gelegentlich auch mit Schwingeranregung. Es werden verschiedene Auswertemethoden wie Seismogramm-Montage, Spektrale Analyse (SASW), Multistation Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW), f,v-Analyse (Dispersion aus zweifacher Fourier-Analyse), Spatial AutoCorrelation (SPAC, hier auch für deterministische Quellen) vorgestellt. Durch Approximation der frequenzabhängigen Wellengeschwindigkeiten (Dispersion) oder der gemessenen Übertragungsfunktionen erhält man ein passendes Bodenmodell. Zu diesem Bodenmodell kann man dann die Übertragungsfunktionen für Hammer- und Zuganregung berechnen. Mit allgemeinen oder spezifischen Achslastspektren werden dann die Bahnerschütterungen prognostiziert und mit den Messergebnissen verglichen. Bei etlichen Messorten, insbesondere in der Schweiz, wurden deutliche Merkmale einer Bodenschichtung beobachtet. Es ergibt sich eine deutliche Reduktion der tiefen Frequenzanteile durch den steifen unterliegenden Halbraum. Die weiche Deckschicht bestimmt das hochfrequente Verhalten. Hier bewirkt die Materialdämpfung des Bodens oft einen starken Amplitudenabfall, sowohl mit der Entfernung als auch mit der Frequenz. Für den verbleibenden mittelfrequenten Anteil wurde an mehreren Messorten die Amplituden-Fahrgeschwindigkeits-Gesetzmäßigkeiten untersucht. Es gibt konstante bis stark ansteigende Amplituden, und es zeigt sich auch hier, dass der geschichtete Boden von entscheidender Bedeutung ist.

Mitigation measures of railway induced vibration have been demonstrated at the emission, transmission and immission part. It must be carefully observed that the correct masses and stiffnesses are used.
Typical mistakes have been shown,
- 1D models for vehicle-track interaction,
- impedance instead of stiffness for the infill material of a trench,
- rigid buildings or neglecting the soil-building interaction.
The dominant mid-frequency part of the ground vibration is due to the irregular soil.

This presentation provides an overview on general issues related to erosive failures in civil constructions like hydraulic infrastructures and offshore foundations. A brief introduction to the related research activities of BAM in the field of offshore wind energy is first provided, and the general possibilities for micromechanical modelling approaches are outlined. Finally, the ongoing DFG-ANR research project COMET is introduced.

The identification of the dynamic behavior of structures, like bridges and towers, is relevant to address multiple issues. In many cases the dynamic parameters should be acquired only once or at a frequency that doesn’t justify the installation of distinct vibration sensors for a long-term monitoring. To identify modal frequencies of a structure, a drone based mobile sensing platform has been implemented. This sensing platform measures the relative displacement be-tween the structure and the drone, which also shows a strong dynamic behavior under wind tur-bulences. By regarding the dynamic model of the drone and additional measurements at the dis-tance sensor the absolute movement of the structure can be estimated based on the measured relative distance. This time domain data is a suitable input for various operational modal analysis algorithms. The system has been used to identify the dynamic properties of test and real structure, like a 1.5 MW wind turbine tower.

Environmental based perturbations influence significantly the ability to identify structural dam-age in Structural Health Monitoring. Strategies are needed to classify such effects and consider them appropri-ately in SHM. It has to be considered if seasonal effects just mask the structural response or if temperature itself correlates to a weakening of the structure. Various methods have been developed and analyzed to separate environmental based effects from damage induced changes in the measures. Generally, two main approaches have emerged from research activity in this fields: (a) statistics-based tools analyzing patterns in the data or in computed parameters and (b) methods, utilizing the structural model of the bridge considering environmental as well as damage-based changes of stiffness values. With the background of increasing affordability of sensing and computing technology, effort should be made to increase sensitivity, reliability and robustness of proce-dures, separating environmental from damage caused changes in SHM measures. The contribution describes an attempt to evaluate both general strategies, their advantages and drawbacks. In addition, two vibration moni-toring procedures are introduced, allowing for temperature-based perturbations of the monitoring data.

The stability and geometric nonlinearities of slender structures are a major topic in structural design. While this topic is most relevant in the field of Structural Engineering, e.g. for steel or concrete structures, only few applications take the role of soil-structure-interaction explicitly into account. The focus of this paper is placed on the impact of soil support and its modelling for the buckling analysis based on examples both for pile foundations and for railway track stability. The general interaction between steel design and the geotechnical input will be addressed. The paper discusses and summarizes a range of subtopics based on experience and current research at the author’s institute.

Reliability analysis of deteriorating structural systems requires the solution of time-variant reliability problems.
In the general case, both the capacity of and the loads on the structure vary with time. This analysis can be approached by approximation through a series of time-invariant reliability problems, which is a potentially effective strategy for cases where direct solutions of the time-variant reliability problem are challenging, e.g. for structural systems with many elements or arbitrary load processes. In this contribution, we thoroughly Review the formulation of the equivalent time-invariant reliability problems and extend this approximation to structures for which inspection and monitoring data is available. Thereafter, we present methods for efficiently evaluating the reliability over time. In particular, we propose the combination of sampling-based methods with a FORM (first-order reliability method) approximation of the series system reliability problem that arises in the computation of the lifetime reliability. The framework and algorithms are demonstrated on a set of numerical examples, which include the computation of the reliability conditional on inspection data.

Fatigue in Concrete
(2019)

The current knowledge about fatigue behavior of concrete is still incomplete. This concerns especially the progress of fatigue which precedes the fatigue failure. An overview on the fatigue behaviour in concrete is given. Therefore, the process of fatigue itself under cyclic compressive loading was investigated in a systematic and comprehensive way. The aim of this investigation was to obtain a deeper insight and to provide a better understanding of the damage process occurring within the material during fatigue loading.

At present, to produce renewable energy offshore wind farms play an important role. The available space combined with the more valuable wind conditions make offshore locations very attractive for wind powered energy production. In Europe a significant number of offshore wind farms already exist, especially in the North and Baltic Sea. In future this trend will continue, and further offshore wind farms will be built. The majority of offshore wind turbines are mounted on steel foundation structures. Due to the high-cyclic loading by wind and waves fatigue stress plays a substantial role regarding structural safety.
Besides the consideration of fatigue within the design process, to monitor existing steel structures for potential fatigue cracks during their life time is a major topic and a challenge.
For the structures of the offshore wind turbines are large and partially under water effective reliable methods for the detection of fatigue cracks are required.
This contribution presents investigations on different crack detection methods applied at high-cycle fatigue tests on small-scale welded steel samples as well as on large-scale welded steel components. The tests were conducted at the BAM laboratories. For crack detection mainly three different methods were used and compared. The first method regards to the measurement of strain by conventionally strain gauges. Secondly, the crack luminescence was used as a new and effective optical method for surface monitoring. And finally, crack detection by pressure differentials of the inner and outer section of tubular steel elements was investigated. A comparison study will emphasize the advantages and disadvantages of the different methods and show which of the described methods is potentially more suitable for an application on real offshore wind structures.

The structural performance of many geotechnical systems (e.g. axially-loaded pile foundations), depends on the shearing resistance at the soil interface, which may govern the load bearing capacity of the foundation. Experimental investigations have shown that this interaction is mainly localised within a narrow shear band next to the structure. Under cyclic loading, a contraction of the soil at the interface may arise (net volume loss), possibly leading to a stress relaxation and thus to a reduction of the load bearing capacity (the so-called friction fatigue). Based on the constitutive similarities between soil continua and interfaces, we propose here the adaption of a Generalized Plasticity model for sandy soils for the numerical analysis of interface problems. In this contribution, the results of an experimental campaign for the parameter calibration of the constitutive model are presented. The tests have been conducted with a ring shear device involving different normal stresses, roughness of the steel plates as well as cyclic loading. The new modelling approach shows promising results and has the additional practical advantage that the interface zone and the soil continuum can both be described with the same constitutive model in general boundary value problems.

This talk provides a brief introduction on general engineering challenges for the offshore (marine) wind energy production, focusing on material, structural and hydromechanical aspects.
The talk begins with a broad overview on general trends for offshore wind-farms, with insights on some characteristic structural features and their associated loads. Then, some particular open issues for the foundation of the offshore wind turbines into the seabed are introduced. Here, different research approaches are discussed, from experimental investigations to coupled computational analysis at micro- and macroscopic scales.
In the second part of the seminar, both the hydromechanical Wave–Tower interaction and some general aspects of the windfarm aerodynamics (wake analysis) are discussed. Some modelling possibilities in the frame of CFD (computational fluid dynamics) are introduced and the relevance of such analyses for a proper windfarm layout optimization is pointed out.
Summing up, this seminar aims to show that: i) Numerical analysis of the turbine’s interaction with wind/waves and with the seabed is both useful and affordable. ii) Simplified models can provide an insight into windfarm aerodynamics. iii) Turbulent wake analysis is very relevant for the windfarm layout.

Erschütterungen durch Industrie und Verkehr, Schwingungen von Gebäuden, Fundamenten und Gleisen hängen im hohen Maße vom jeweiligen unterliegenden Boden ab. Die Eigenschaften des Bodens ermitteln wir mit Wellenmessungen vor Ort. Die Wellen werden in der Regel mit einem Impulshammer erzeugt und mit Geophonen als Schwinggeschwindigkeits-signale gemessen. Geophone sind aktive Sensoren, die eine kleine Messspannung liefern. Ein 72-kanaliges Messsystem mit entsprechenden Messverstärkern ist im Messwagen der Arbeitsgruppe eingebaut. Es werden im Vortrag fünf verschiedene Auswertemethoden vorgestellt. Im einfachsten Fall versucht man die Laufzeit von einem Geophon zum andern auszumessen und damit die vorherrschende Wellengeschwindigkeit zu ermitteln. Wir haben Wellengeschwindigkeiten von 30 m/s für Moorboden bis 1000 m/s für Felsboden gemessen. Der Boden hat aber nicht nur eine Wellengeschwindigkeit, sondern mehrere frequenzabhängige Wellen-geschwindigkeiten. Dadurch wird aus einem kurzen Hammerschlag eine längere Schwingung (Zerstreuung, Dispersion). Für die Auswertung von dispersiven Wellen nutzt man die spektrale Analyse, zunächst mit zwei Aufnehmern (SASW Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves), später mit einer ganzen Messachse (Multi-Station SASW). Schließlich kann man eine ganze Messachse auch mit verschiedenen Transformationsmethoden auswerten wie die f,v-Methode und Spatial AutoCorrelation SPAC Methode. Alle diese Methoden wurden von uns auf Messreisen in Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz getestet. Durch die Approximation der frequenzabhängigen Wellengeschwindigkeiten erhält man ein passendes Bodenmodell. Zu diesem Bodenmodell kann man die Übertra¬gungsfunktionen für Hammer- und Zuganregung berechnen. Bei etlichen Mess¬orten wurden deutliche Merkmale einer Bodenschichtung beobachtet. Es ergibt sich eine Reduktion der tiefen Frequenzanteile durch den steifen unterliegenden Halbraum. Die weiche Deckschicht bestimmt das hochfrequente Verhalten.

Damage detection and localization in civil or mechanical structures is a subject of active development and research. A few vibration‐based methods have been developed so far, requiring, for example, modal parameter estimates in the reference and damaged states of the investigated structure, and for localization in addition a finite element model. For structures in operation, temperature has been shown to be a major nuisance to the efficiency of such methods because the modal parameters are varying not only with damage but also due to temperature variations. For detection, a few rejection approaches have been developed. Besides the increased complexity, environmental variation is hardly taken into account in localization approaches. In this paper, we propose a sensitivity‐based correction of the identified modal parameters in the damaged state with respect to the temperature field in the reference state, on the basis of a sensitivity analysis with respect to temperature dependent Parameters of the finite element model in the reference state. The approach is then applied to the stochastic dynamic damage locating vector method, where its improved performance under nonuniform temperature variations is shown in a numerical application on a beam.