## 7.2 Ingenieurbau

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#### Dokumenttyp

- Vortrag (148)
- Beitrag zu einem Tagungsband (88)
- Zeitschriftenartikel (62)
- Posterpräsentation (16)
- Buchkapitel (8)
- Beitrag zu einem Sammelband (4)
- Dissertation (4)
- Tagungsband (Herausgeberschaft für den kompletten Band) (1)
- Sonstiges (1)

#### Schlagworte

- Fatigue (21)
- Ground vibration (18)
- Monitoring (13)
- Structural health monitoring (12)
- Finite element method (10)
- Slab track (10)
- Structural Health Monitoring (10)
- Inspection (9)
- Offshore wind energy (9)
- Damage characterization (8)

#### Organisationseinheit der BAM

- 7 Bauwerkssicherheit (332) (entfernen)

Changes in the measured response of structural systems can be an indication of structural damages. However, such changes can also be caused by the effect of varying environmental conditions. To detect, localize and quantify changes or damages in structural systems subject to varying environmental conditions, physics-based models of the structural systems have to be applied which explicitly account for the influence of ambient conditions on the structural behavior. Data obtained from the structural systems should be used to calibrate the models and update predictions. Bayesian system identification is an effective framework for this task. In this paper, we apply this framework to learn the parameters of two competing structural models of a reinforced concrete beam subject to varying temperatures based on static response data. The models describe the behavior of the beam in the uncracked and cracked condition. The data is collected in a series of load tests in a climate chamber. Bayesian model class selection is then applied to infer the most plausible condition of the beam conditional on the available data.

Nach den bisherigen Regeln werden Bauwerksprüfungen von Brücken in starr definierten Intervallen durchgeführt. Diese starre, periodische, zustandsbasierte Instandhaltungsstrategie soll zukünftig durch eine flexible und prädiktive Instandhaltung ersetzt werden. Hierbei sollen Inspektionen und Instandhaltungsmaßnahmen unterstützt durch autonome Systeme auf der Grundlage von Monitoringdaten geplant und zusätzlich bei unvorhergesehenen Ereignissen ausgelöst werden. Im Rahmen des Verbundforschungsvorhabens AISTEC wird ein Vorgehen für Großbauwerke und kleinere Regelbauwerke zur Umsetzung eines kombinierten globalen, schwingungsbasierten und quasistatischen Monitorings entworfen. An der Maintalbrücke Gemünden – einer semiintegralen Rahmenbrücke aus Spannbeton auf der Schnellfahrstrecke Hannover–Würzburg – wurde als Demonstrator ein Dauermonitoring realisiert.

The reliability of deteriorating structures at time t is quantified by the probability that failure occurs within the period leading up to time t. This probability is often referred to as cumulative failure probability and is equal to the cumulative distribution function of the time to failure. In structural reliability, an estimate of the cumulative failure probability is obtained based on probabilistic engineering models of the deterioration processes and structural performance. Information on the condition and the loading contained in inspection and monitoring data can be included in the probability estimate through Bayesian updating. Conditioning the probability of failure on the inspection or monitoring outcomes available at time t (e.g. detections or no detection of damages) can lead to a reduction in that probability.
Such a drop in the cumulative failure probability might seem counterintuitive since the cumulative failure probability is a non-decreasing function of time. In this paper, we illustrate—with the help of a numerical example—that such a drop is possible because the cumulative probability before and after the updating is not based on the same information, hence not on the same probabilistic model.

The reliability of deteriorating structures at time t is quantified by the probability that failure occurs within the period leading up to time t. This probability is often referred to as cumulative failure probability and is equal to the cumulative distribution function of the time to failure. In structural reliability, an estimate of the cumulative failure probability is obtained based on probabilistic Engineering models of the deterioration processes and structural performance. Information on the condition and the loading contained in inspection and monitoring data can be included in the probability estimate through Bayesian updating. Conditioning the
probability of failure on the inspection or monitoring outcomes available at time t (e.g. detections or no detection of damages) can lead to a reduction in that probability.
Such a drop in the cumulative failure probability might seem counterintuitive since the cumulative failure probability is a non-decreasing function of time. In this paper, we illustrate—with the help of a numerical example—that such a drop is possible because the cumulative probability before and after the updating is not based on the same information, hence not on the same probabilistic model.

Fatigue is one of the main deterioration processes affecting the performance of welded steel support structures of wind turbines in offshore wind farms. In this contribution, we present a probabilistic physics-based fatigue deterioration model of a wind farm that accounts for the stochastic dependence among the fatigue behavior of different hotspots at turbine and wind farm level. The dependence exists because of uncertain common influencing factors such as similar material properties, fabrication qualities and load conditions. These system effects signify that an inspection of one hotspot provides indirect information of the condition of the remaining hotspots and thus enable an optimization of the inspection effort for a wind farm.
The wind farm model consists of two levels: A turbine support structure (level 1 system model) is represented by its fatigue hotspots and their stochastic dependence. The fatigue performance of a hotspot is described by a probabilistic fracture mechanics (FM) fatigue model. The probabilistic model of the parameters of the FM fatigue model is calibrated based on design data and is thus directly linked to the design of the turbine support structures. Dependence among the fatigue performances of different hotspots in a turbine support structure is modeled by introducing correlations between the stochastic parameters of the FM fatigue models. A wind farm (level 2 system model) consists of different turbine support structures (level 1 system models). Additional correlations are introduced at wind farm level to account for the dependence among the fatigue behavior of hotspots belonging to different turbine support structures. The wind farm model enables the computation of (marginal) hotspot fatigue reliabilities, system fatigue reliabilities of individual turbine support structures and the system fatigue reliability of an entire wind farm. The probabilistic model of the parameters of the two-level system model can be consistently updated with inspection outcomes using Bayesian methods. The updated probabilistic model of the model parameters then forms the basis for updating the estimates of the fatigue reliabilities.
We implement the wind farm model in a software tool named SysPark. The tool provides the means for planning inspections at wind farm level using an adaptive reliability-based threshold approach. In this approach, the first inspection campaign is planned in the year before the fatigue failure rates of the hotspots with the lowest fatigue reliabilities exceed a threshold failure rate. Once inspection results become available, the probabilistic model of the parameters of the wind farm model is updated. If repairs are performed, the wind farm model is additionally modified to describe the behavior of the repaired hotspots. The updated and modified model then enables the planning of the next inspection campaign and so on. The software tool is demonstrated in a case study considering a generic wind farm consisting of turbines with jacket support structures.

There is a strong need for cost-effective mitigation measures for
turnouts. SBB has initiated a series of examinations using different methodologies to gain a deeper understanding of the excitation mechanisms at low frequencies, in addition to that obtained in the RIVAS project. To date it is not yet clear what constitutes a complete measurement data set that would enable understanding most of the vibration excitation mechanisms in turnouts. Increasing vibration at turnouts in comparison to normal track is observed for all measured frequencies.
The different methodologies are presented in the paper. Under-sleeper pads (USP) are a cost-effective method to reduce vibration at frequencies above 63 Hz (1/3 octave), but there is probably no improvement for frequencies below 63 Hz. A first test of new frog geometry did not show relevant improvements in Vibration emission in comparison to a reference frog geometry. Axle box acceleration measurements are an interesting method to identify defects in a turnout. A specialized measurement system of rail roughness could identify certain geometry Problem areas for some frogs. Noise increases also are observed at turnouts for frequencies ranging between 80 to 1000 Hz. The use of railway source models to calculate
contact forces for ballasted track and turnouts seems promising, in particular for understanding the influence of ground.

The present contribution evaluates four measuring series made by the Federal Institute of Material Research and Testing for the relations between train speed and ground vibration amplitudes. This experimental evaluation is supported by the simulation of the train passages at the different sites by using appropriate excitation mechanisms and forces as well as layered soil models which have been derived from impact measurements at each site.

This document presents the specification for the execution and evaluation of high-speed tensile tests on reinforcement bar coupler systems. This specification was developed at BAM - Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Germany) - following test principles from related international standards.
The present document represents the latest status of the test specification. It is noted that until 2010 the test procedure was characterised on a test velocity based on L0. In an improved test conception and after intensive investigations in cooperation with industry partners, this procedure has been updated to consider instead a test velocity based on Lr, since this warrants more comparable and meaningful results.

Fault detection for linear parameter varying systems under changes in the process noise covariance
(2020)

Detecting changes in the eigenstructure of linear systems is a comprehensively investigated subject. In particular, change detection methods based on hypothesis testing using Gaussian residuals have been developed previously. In such residuals, a reference model is confronted to data from the current system. In this paper, linear output-only systems depending on a varying external physical parameter are considered. These systems are driven by process noise, whose covariance may also vary between measurements. To deal with the varying parameter, an interpolation approach is pursued, where a limited number of reference models – each estimated from data measured in a reference state – are interpolated to approximate an adequate reference model for the current parameter. The problem becomes more complex when the different points of interpolation correspond to different noise conditions. Then conflicts may arise between the detection of changes in the eigenstructure due to a fault and the detection of changes due to different noise conditions. For this case, a new change detection approach is developed based on the interpolation of the eigenstructure at the reference points. The resulting approach is capable of change detection when both the external physical parameter and the process noise conditions are varying. This approach is validated on a numerical simulation of a mechanical system.

Fault detection for linear parameter varying systems under changes in the process noise covariance
(2020)

Detecting changes in the eigenstructure of linear systems is a comprehensively investigated subject. In particular, change detection methods based on hypothesis testing using Gaussian residuals have been developed previously. In such residuals, a reference model is confronted to data from the current system. In this paper, linear output-only Systems depending on a varying external physical parameter are considered. These systems are driven by process noise, whose covariance may also vary between measurements. To deal with the varying parameter, an interpolation approach is pursued, where a limited number of reference models { each estimated from data measured in a reference state { are interpolated to approximate an adequate reference model for the current parameter. The problem becomes more complex when the different points of interpolation correspond to different noise conditions. Then con icts May arise between the detection of changes in the eigenstructure due to a fault and the detection of changes due to different noise conditions. For this case, a new change detection approach is developed based on the interpolation of the eigenstructure at the reference points. The resulting approach is capable of change detection when both the external physical parameter and the process noise conditions are varying. This approach is validated on a numerical simulation of a mechanical system.

his presentation deals with the phenomenology and design of pile foundations for offshore wind turbines, and is divided into two lectures.
The second lecture continues with the case of laterally loaded offshore piles, which bears most relevance for the case of the monopile foundations. Here again, a clear separation between physical reality and design methods is intended.
Finally, the last part of the second lecture introduces several advanced topics which lie outside the classical design approaches, namely the hydromechanical coupling effects (i.e. the excess pore-pressure generation around the monopiles), the cyclic pile fatigue and the so-called pile setup (i.e. the time effects on the axial pile capacity). The relevance of the latter two topics is illustrated with experimental results from a field testing campaign on real large-scale piles.

This presentation deals with the phenomenology and design of pile foundations for offshore wind turbines, and is divided into two lectures.
The first lecture presents a brief introduction to the context and peculiarities of such foundations, and then focuses on the particular case of axially loaded piles. This part is most relevant for the relatively slender piles of the multi-pile substructures (i.e. jackets and tripods). A clear distinction between physical phenomenology and practical design is drawn here.

The dynamic behaviour of slab and ballast tracks has been investigated by measurements and calculations. Hammer impacts and train passages have been analysed. Measurements have been performed by geophones (velocity transducers) which have been time-integrated to displacements. The calculations are done in frequency-wavenumber domain for multi-beam-on-continuous soil models. The characteristics of the different tracks and track elements have been established in theory and experiment. The frequency-dependent compliances (displacement transfer functions) show clear rail-on-rail-pad resonances or highly damped track-soil resonances. Compared to the rail and sleeper, the track plate has much lower amplitudes. The slab track has usually the highest rail amplitudes due to soft rail pads. The train passage yields track displacements which are a superposition of the axle loads from the two neighbouring axles of a bogie and from the two bogies of two neighbouring carriages. This global behaviour is characteristic for the track plate of the slab track whereas the rails of the slab and the ballast track behave more local with only one bogie of influence. The measurements agree very well with the theory of the continuous soil in case of the six measured slab tracks and acceptably well for the six measured ballast tracks. The measurements allow to find appropriate model parameters and to check the models, for example the Winkler model of the soil has been found less appropriate as it reacts more locally.

Grouted connections are intensively used in offshore rigs, platforms as well as jacket and monopile offshore wind turbine structures. Being located in remote offshore conditions, these connections can experience considerable adverse loading during their lifetimes. Degradation was reported inside similar connections, which were installed in the last three decades. Grouting in the offshore sites may often be proven difficult, which eventually leads to reduced load-bearing capacity of connections in the long run. Thus, repair and rehabilitation of such connections should be planned ahead to minimize operational delays and costs. In this study, scaled grouted connections were manufactured using a novel mould, whose integrity were monitored using digital image correlation (DIC). The connections were loaded under static load to visualize the main failure pattern using distributed fibre optic sensors and acoustic emission (AE) analysis. Grouted connections were then repaired using a cementitious injectable grout. The effectiveness of the grout injection was monitored using dye penetration technique. Finally, specimens are reloaded to identify the potential of such repair for grouted connections.

Design challenges for Offshore wind-farms. From foundation mechanics to wind-farm aerodynamics
(2021)

This talk provides a brief introduction on general engineering design challenges for the offshore wind energy production. Some general features of the offshore wind-energy field from a civil engineering perspective are firstly presented, followed by a brief discussion of some of the main geomechanical issues for the foundation of the offshore turbines into the seabed.
In the following part, an overview of relevant fluid-structure interactions and some options for an efficient numerical analysis are provided, where the hydromechanical Wave–Tower interaction is firstly discussed. Then, some general aspects of the windfarm aerodynamics are introduced. On the one hand, some modelling possibilities for the wake analysis of single turbines and turbine groups are discussed. And on the other hand the relevance of such analyses for a proper windfarm layout optimization is pointed out.
In particular, this talk shows that: i) The bearing capacity of turbine multi-pile foundations can degrade under cyclic loading (waves, wind, …), while for monopile foundations cyclic hydromechanical coupling effects may take place, which may lead to a foundation softening; ii) Numerical analysis of a turbine’s interaction with wind/waves is useful and affordable, while simplified models can already provide a useful insight into the windfarm aerodynamics. iii) Turbulent wake analysis is very relevant for the windfarm layout.

Many measurements of train induced ground vibrations show high amplitudes for a certain mid-frequency range. This ground vibration component cannot be well explained by dynamic loads of the train. Many characteristics indicate that the axle impulses, which are scattered by an irregular soil, are the excitation. This new understanding of railway-induced ground vibration is verified by numerical analysis. The response of the regular homogeneous and irregular inhomogeneous soils has been calculated by the finite-element method in frequency domain. A specific superposition of the impulse responses has been invented including time shift, axle sequence, track filter and hanning filter. The superposition yields the quasi-static component of the ground vibration which is restricted to very low frequencies and to the close near-field of the track. In case of an irregular soil of which the stiffness varies randomly in space, the superposition yields a mid-frequency ground vibration component from the scattering of the axle impulses. The existence and the importance of this component can thus be demonstrated by the calculations. Some rules of the influence of distance, train speed, soil stiffness, strength and width of the stiffness variation have been derived from the calculations. Many measurements show the unique explanation of the mid-frequency ground vibration component by the scattered axle impulses.