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- Zeitschriftenartikel (38) (entfernen)

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- Englisch (38) (entfernen)

#### Schlagworte

- Ground vibration (8)
- Railway track (4)
- Track-soil interaction (4)
- Vehicle-track interaction (4)
- Force transfer (3)
- Layered soil (3)
- Wavenumber integrals (3)
- Field tests (2)
- Finite-element boundary-element method (2)
- Railway (2)

#### Organisationseinheit der BAM

- 7 Bauwerkssicherheit (17)
- 7.2 Ingenieurbau (17)

An integral method to calculate the solution of a homogeneous or layered soil due to a harmonic point load is described. An infinite plate at the surface of the soil can be introduced in this integration in wavenumber domain, too. Finite structures on the soil are calculated by a combined finite element and boundary element method, which makes use of the point load solution of the soil. The compliance functions for a vertical point load and some vibration modes are calculated for realistic parameters of the plate and the soil and for a wide range of frequencies. The influence of the stiffness of the soil and the foundation is investigated, showing that the soil mainly affects the low-frequent response whereas the structural properties are more important at higher frequencies. A rigid approximation of flexible plates is only found at low frequencies, if the elastic length is used as the radius of a rigid disk. At higher frequencies, a characteristic behaviour of the flexible plate of approximately is observed, what is in clear contrast to the compliance of rigid foundations. A plate on a visco-elastic support (Winkler soil) shows similar displacements as a plate on a homogeneous half-space, but the maximal stresses between the plate and the soil are considerably smaller which is found to be more realistic for a plate on a layered soil. For practical applications, a normalized diagram and some explicit formulas of the exact and the approximate solutions of an infinite plate on a homogeneous half-space are given, which is a useful model to represent the soil-structure interaction of flexible foundations.

This article presents an integrated model for the computation of vehicletrack interaction and the ground vibrations of passing trains. A combined finite element and boundary element method is used to calculate the dynamic compliance of the track on realistic soil whereas multi-body models are used for the vehicle. The dynamic stiffness of the vehicle and that of the track are combined to calculate the dynamic axle loads due to the irregularities of the vehicle and the track as well as those due to sleeper passing excitation. These loads serve as input for the calculation of ground vibration near railway lines in the time and frequency domains.
The theoretical methods and results have been proven by experiments in several respects and at several instances. First, on the occasion of the test and record runs of the Intercity Experimental, there was a very good quality of the vehicle and of the newly built track so that the deterministic parts of the excitationthe static load and the sleeper-passing componentcould clearly be identified, the first being of minor importance apart from the track. Second, simultaneous measurements of the vehicle, the track and the soil at three different track situations were performed where we could verify the different parts of the stochastic excitation and their importance for the ground vibrations. The irregularities of the vehicle are dominant at high frequencies whereas the irregularities of the track are more important at lower frequencies. The comparison of the theory and the measurements also points to the phenomena of the vehicletrack resonance and the scattering of the quasi-static axle impulses by randomly varying soil.

Ballast mats are an efficient measure to reduce the vibrations near railway lines. The vehicle-track system gets a low eigenfrequency due to the insertion of an elastic ballast mat under the ballast. For frequencies higher than this low vehicle-track eigenfrequency, the forces, which are generating the vibration of the soil, are considerably reduced. In this contribution, a combined finite-element boundary-matrix method is used to calculate a number of completely three-dimensional track models with and without ballast mats. The influence of the important parameters such as the stiffness of the ballast mat, the unsprung vehicle mass, the mass of the track, and the stiffness of the subsoil is investigated. The numerical results are presented as the transfer functions of the total force that is acting on the soil and generating the vibration of the environment. The effectiveness of ballast mats is achieved by division of two of these force functions. The general tendencies for this insertion loss are discussed and a comparison with measurements is given. To come to an improved practical tool for the design of ballast-mat tracks, the finite-element method results are approximated by a simple two-dimensional model of which the solution is given explicitly.

The propagation of waves through homogeneous or layered soil is calculated based on half-space theory. The moving dynamic loads of a train are approximated by fixed dynamic loads and the wave field can be calculated if the spectrum of the dynamic train loads is known. In addition to this dynamic wave field, there are three different components at three different frequency ranges which are caused by the passage of the static loads:
the regular static component at low frequencies,
the irregular static component at medium frequencies,
the sleeper-passing component at high frequencies.
For each of these components, an approximate solution is presented. The calculated wave field is compared with measurements of different trains at different sites. The measurement of impulse and harmonic point load excitation verifies the soil dynamic base of the method.