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- Neural networks (7)
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- Aluminium (6)
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- Digitalisierung (4)
- Grain refinement (4)
- Inverse heat conduction problem (4)
- Laser beam welding (4)
- Lichtbogensensorik (4)
- Friction stir welding (3)

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- 9 Komponentensicherheit (58)
- 9.3 Schweißtechnische Fertigungsverfahren (57)
- 5 Werkstofftechnik (5)
- 5.1 Materialographie, Fraktographie und Alterung technischer Werkstoffe (3)
- 5.2 Experimentelle und modellbasierte Werkstoffmechanik (3)
- 8 Zerstörungsfreie Prüfung (3)
- 8.4 Akustische und elektromagnetische Verfahren (2)
- 8.5 Mikro-ZfP (2)
- 9.1 Betriebsfestigkeit und Bauteilsicherheit (2)
- 5.5 Technische Keramik (1)

Austenite grain growth during welding is a critical factor for controlling weld microstructure in addition to nominal composition and thermal cycles. Recently, experimental data suggesting a decrease in martensite start temperature with a decrease in prior austenite grain size has been published. However, the actual sensitivity of this phenomenon on residual stresses evolution in the heat-affected zone has not been investigated, yet. Therefore, a numerical model was modified to consider this phenomenon. Numerical simulations were performed for welding of a low-alloy structural steel with minimum yield strength of 355 MPa (S355J2+N) and a heat-resistant steel P91 or 9Cr–1Mo, respectively. The results clarify the influence of prior austenite grain size on the residual stress development and show the importance martensite transformation temperatures and final martensite fraction. Consequently, the residual stress evolution of P91, which completely transforms to martensite while cooling, based on the enhanced model leads to maximum stress differences of 200 MPa in the heat-affected zone.

Refinement of the weld metal grain structure can improve the mechanical properties of the weld and decrease the susceptibility to solidification cracking of the weld metal. In this study, commercial Al Ti5B1 grain refiner was used to refine the microstructure of LB (laser beam) and GTA (gas tungsten arc) aluminum welds by inoculation. The grain refiner additions led to a significant decrease in the weld metal mean grain size whereby a transition from columnar to equiaxed grain structure (Columnar to Equiaxed Transition, CET) was observed. The development of both grain size and shape depended upon the base metal (Al alloys 1050A, 5083 and 6082) and upon the welding process. The GTA welding process allowed a more pronounced and a more efficient refinement than in LB welds. Furthermore, the influence of the solidification conditions on the CET was investigated through temperature measurements in the weld metal. The temperature profiles revealed a faster solidification of LB welds than in GTA welds. The results from the temperature measurements were also used to estimate (according to an existing model) the critical thermal gradient at which the CET occurs.

The paper presents bounded volume heat sources and the corresponding functional-analytical expressions for the temperature field. The power density distributions considered here are normal, exponential and parabolic. The sources model real heat sources like the welding arc, laser beam, electron beam, etc., the convection in the weld pool as well as the latent heat due to fusion and solidification. The parameters of the heat source models are unknown a priori and have to be evaluated by solving an inverse heat conduction problem. The functional-analytical technique for calculating 3D temperature fields in butt welding is developed. The proposed technique makes it possible to reduce considerably the total time for data input and solution. It is demonstrated with an example of laser beam welding of steel plates.

This paper presents volume heat sources and the corresponding functional analytical Solutions for the transient temperature field. The considered energy distributions are normal, exponential and parabolic. The method follows the common approach in Computational Welding Mechanics (CWM) to account for the physics of the welding process and the resulting temperature field by phenomenological models for heat conduction. Therefore, the used heat source models are apparent heat sources that incorporate the real heat input as well as the fluid flow in the weld pool and the latent heat connected with phase transformations. The heat source models provide welding characteristics like thermal cycle and Fusion line in the cross section within short computational time. Consequently, inverse techniques on basis of optimisation algorithms enable the adaptation of the models to the experimental data efficiently. Furthermore, the direct evaluation of the energy distribution for the experimental fusion line in the cross section is demonstrated which enhances the numerical optimisation by reducing the number of unknown model Parameters and providing a reasonable initial guess within the model parameter space. The proposed temperature field models are validated with real laser beam welding experiments.

Fast temperature field generation for welding simulation and reduction of experimental effort
(2011)

The quality of welding processes is governed by the occurring induced distortions yielding an increase in production costs due to necessary reworking. Especially for more complex specimens, it is difficult to evaluate the optimal configuration of welding sequences in order to minimize the distortion. Even experienced welding operators can solve this task only by trial and error which is time and cost consuming. In modern engineering the application of welding simulation is already known to be able to analyse the heat effects of welding virtually. However, the welding process is governed by complex physical interactions. Thus, recent weld thermal models are based on many simplifications. The state of the art is to apply numerical methods in order to solve the transient heat conduction equation. Therefore, it is not possible to use the real process parameters as input for the mathematical model. The model parameters which allow calculating a temperature field that is in best agreement with the experiments cannot be defined directly but inversely by multiple simulations runs. In case of numerical simulation software based on finite discretization schemes this approach is very time consuming and requires expert users. The weld thermal model contains an initial weakness which has to be adapted by finding an optimal set of model parameters. This process of calibration is often done against few experiments. The range of model validity is limited. An extension can be obtained by performing a calibration against multiple experiments. The focus of the paper is to show a combined modelling technique which provides an efficient solution of the inverse heat conduction problem mentioned above. On the one hand the inverse problem is solved by application of fast weld thermal models which are closed form solutions of the heat conduction equation. In addition, a global optimization algorithm allows an automated calibration of the weld thermal model. This technique is able to provide a temperature field automatically that fits the experimental one with high accuracy within minutes on ordinary office computers. This fast paradigm permits confirming the application of welding simulation in an industrial environment as automotive industry. On the other hand, the initial model weakness is compensated by calibrating the model against multiple experiments. The unknown relationship between model and process parameters is approximated by a neural network. The validity of the model is increased successively and enables to decrease experimental effort, For a test case, it is shown that this approach yields accurate temperature fields within very short amount of time for unknown process parameters as input data to the model contributing to the requirement to construct a substitute system of the real welding process.

Die aktuelle Normung bezüglich mikroskopischer Untersuchungen von Schweißverbindungen und die Zulässigkeit von Mikrorissen sowie deren Definition ist nicht eindeutig. Nach der Darstellung derzeit gültiger Normen im Bereich der Bewertung von Schweißnähten, Qualifizierung von Schweißverfahren und Ausführung von Schweißverbindungen, wird auf Grundlage aktueller Schweißversuche an hochfesten vergüteten Feinkornbaustählen die Problematik von Mikrorissen diskutiert. Offene Punkte und Fragen bzw. Verbesserungsmöglichkeiten werden aufgezeigt und zur Diskussion gestellt. Schließlich wird auf die Klärung des Einflusses von Mikrorissen auf die mechanisch- technologischen Werkstoffkennwerte der Schweißverbindung unter statischer sowie zyklischer Beanspruchung hingewiesen. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Neither the latest standardisation with regard to microscopic investigations on welded joints nor the permissibility of microcracks and their definition are unambiguous. According to the representation of currently applicable standards in the fields of the assessment of welds, the qualification of welding processes and the execution of welded joints, the problems associated with microcracks are discussed on the basis of the latest welding tests on high-strength quenched-and-tempered fine-grained structural steels. Not only outstanding points and questions but also improvement possibilities are indicated and opened for discussion. Finally, attention is drawn to the clarification of the influence of microcracks on the mechanical- technological material parameters of the welded joint subjected to both static and cyclic stresses.

Influence of solute content and solidification parameters on grain refinement of aluminum weld metal
(2013)

Grain refinement provides an important possibility to enhance the mechanical properties (e.g., strength and ductility) and the weldability (susceptibility to solidification cracking) of aluminum weld metal. In the current study, a filler metal consisting of aluminum base metal and different amounts of commercial grain refiner Al Ti5B1 was produced. The filler metal was then deposited in the base metal and fused in a GTA welding process. Additions of titanium and boron reduced the weld metal mean grain size considerably and resulted in a transition from columnar to equiaxed grain shape (CET). In commercial pure aluminum (Alloy 1050A), the grain-refining efficiency was higher than that in the Al alloys 6082 and 5083. Different welding and solidification parameters influenced the grain size response only slightly. Furthermore, the observed grain-size reduction was analyzed by means of the undercooling parameter P and the growth restriction parameter Q, which revealed the influence of solute elements and nucleant particles on grain size.

Modeling of gas metal arc welding process using an analytically determined volumetric heat source
(2013)

High peak temperature and continuous deposition of electrode droplets in the weld puddle inhibit real-time monitoring of thermal cycles and bead dimensions in gas metal arc welding. A three-dimensional numerical heat transfer model is presented here to compute temperature field and bead dimensions considering a volumetric heat source to account for the transfer of arc energy into the weld pool. The heat source dimensions are analytically estimated as function of welding conditions and original joint geometry. The deposition of electrode material is modeled using deactivation and activation of discrete elements in a presumed V-groove joint geometry. The computed values of bead dimensions and thermal cycles are validated with the corresponding measured results. A comparison of the analytically estimated heat source dimensions and the corresponding numerically computed bead dimensions indicate that the former could rightly serve as the basis for conduction heat transfer based models of gas metal arc welding process.

Grain refinement is an important possibility to enhance the mechanical properties such as strength, ductility and toughness of aluminium weld metal. In this study, grain refinement was achieved through the addition of commercial grain refiner Al Ti5B1 to gas tungsten arc weld metal of the aluminium alloys 1050A (Al 99.5) and 5083 (Al Mg4.5Mn0.7). The grain refiner additions led to a significant reduction of the weld metal mean grain size (Alloy 1050A, 86 %; Alloy 5083, 44 %) with a change in grain shape from columnar to equiaxed. Tensile tests showed for Alloy 5083 that the weld metal's ductility can be increased through grain refinement. No improvement in weld metal strength (i.e. yield strength and ultimate tensile strength) was observed. Furthermore, tear tests with notched specimens revealed that the resistance against initiation and propagation of cracks in the weld metal can be enhanced through grain refinement. The toughness was observed to increase clearly by grain refinement in weld metal of commercial pure Al (Alloy 1050A). In Alloy 5083 weld metal, the toughness was not improved through grain refinement, likely because of a semi-continuous network of brittle intermetallic phases that facilitate crack propagation.

Fast Temperature Field Generation for Welding Simulation and Reduction of Experimental Effort
(2009)

The objective of this paper is to demonstrate a new simulation technique which allows fast and automatic generation of temperature fields as input for subsequent thermomechanical welding simulation. The basic idea is to decompose the process model into an empirical part based on neural networks and a phenomenological part that describes the physical phenomena. The strength of this composite modelling approach is the automatic calibration of mathematical models against experimental data without the need for manual interference by an experienced user. As an example for typical applications in laser beam and GMA-laser hybrid welding, it is shown that even 3D heat conduction models of a low complexity can approximate measured temperature fields with a sufficient accuracy. In general, any derivation of model fitting parameters from the real process adds uncertainties to the simulation independent of the complexity of the underlying phenomenological model. The modelling technique presented hybridises empirical and phenomenological models. It reduces the model uncertainties by exploiting additional information which keeps normally hidden in the data measured when the model calibration is performed against few experimental data sets. In contrast, here the optimal model parameter set corresponding to a given process parameter is computed by means of an empirical submodel based on relatively large set of experimental data. The approach allows making a contribution to an efficient compensation of modelling inaccuracies and lack of knowledge about thermophysical material properties or boundary conditions. Two illustrating examples are provided.

The objective of this paper is to demonstrate a new simulation technique which allows the fast and automatic generation to temperature fields based on a combination of empirical and phenomenological modelling techniques. The automatic calibration of the phenomenological model is performed by a multi-variable global optimisation routine which yields the optimal fit between simulated and experimental weld charcteristics without the need for initial model parameters. For exemplary welding processes it is shown that linear 3D heat conduction models can approximate measured temperature fields with a high accuracy. The modelling approach presented comprises the automatic calibration against multiple experiments which permits simulating the temperature field for unknown process parameters. The validation of this composite simulation model is performed for exemplary welding processes and includes the prediction of the fusion line in the cross section and the corresponding thermal cycles.

Fast temperature field generation for welding simulation and reduction of experimental effort
(2009)

The quality of welding processes is governed by the occurring induced distortions yielding an
increase in production costs due to necessary reworking. Especially for more complex specimens
it is difficult to evaluate the optimal configuration of welding sequences in order to
minimise the distortion. Even experienced welding operators can solve this task only by trial
and error which is time and cost consuming.
In modern engineering the application of welding simulation is already known to be able to
analyse the heat effects of welding virtually. However, the welding process is governed by
complex physical interactions. Thus, recent weld thermal models are based on many simplifications.
The state of the art is to apply numerical methods in order to solve the transient heat
conduction equation. Therefore, it is not possible to use the real process parameters as input
for the mathematical model. The model parameters which allow calculating a temperature
field that is in best agreement with the experiments cannot be defined directly but inversely by
multiple simulations runs. In case of numerical simulation software based on finite discretisation
schemes this approach is very time consuming and requires expert users. The weld
thermal model contains an initial weakness which has to be adapted by finding an optimal set
of model parameters. This process of calibration is often done against few experiments. The
range of model validity is limited. An extension can be obtained by performing a calibration
against multiple experiments.
The focus of the paper is to show a combined modelling technique which provides an efficient
solution of the inverse heat conduction problem mentioned above. On the one hand the inverse
problem is solved by application of fast weld thermal models which are closed form
solutions of the heat conduction equation. In addition, a global optimisation algorithm allows
an automated calibration of the weld thermal model. This technique is able to provide a temperature
field automatically that fits the experimental one with high accuracy within minutes
on ordinary office computers. This fast paradigm permits confirming the application of welding
simulation in an industrial environment as automotive industry.
On the other hand, the initial model weakness is compensated by calibrating the model
against multiple experiments. The unknown relationship between model and process parameters
is approximated by a neural network. The validity of the model is increased successively
and enables to decrease experimental effort. For a test case it is shown, that this approach
yields accurate temperature fields within very short amount of time for unknown process parameters
as input data to the model contributing to the requirement to construct a substitute
system of the real welding process.

The present thesis provides a contribution to the solution of the inverse heat conduction problem in welding simulation. The solution strategy is governed by the need that the phenomenological simulation model utilised for the direct solution has to provide calculation results within short computational time. This is a fundamental criterion in order to apply optimisation algorithms for the detection of optimal model parameter sets. The direct simulation model focuses on the application of functional-analytical methods for solving the corresponding partial differential equation of heat conduction. In particular, volume heat sources with a bounding of the domain of action are applied. Besides the known normal and exponential distribution, the models are extended by the introduction of parabolically distributed heat sources. Furthermore, the movement on finite specimens under consideration of curved trajectories has been introduced and solved analytically. The calibration of heat source models against experimental reference data involves the simultaneous adaptation of model parameters. Here, the global parameter space is searched in a randomised manner. However, an optimisation pre-processing is needed to get information about the sensitivity of the weld characteristics like weld pool dimension or objective function due to a change of the model parameters. Because of their low computational cost functional-analytical models are well suited to allow extensive sensitivity studies which is demonstrated in this thesis. For real welding experiments the applicability of the simulation framework to reconstruct the temperature field is shown. In addition, computational experiments are performed that allow to evaluate which experimental reference data is needed to represent the temperature field uniquely. Moreover, the influence of the reference data like fusion line in the cross section or temperature measurements are examined concerning the response behaviour of the objective function and the uniqueness of the optimisation problem. The efficient solution of the inverse problem requires two aspects, namely fast solutions of the direct problem but also a reasonable number of degrees of freedom of the optimization problem. Hence, a method was developed that allows the direct derivation of the energy distribution by means of the fusion line in the cross section, which allows reducing the dimension of the optimisation problem significantly. All conclusions regarding the sensitivity studies and optimisation behaviour are also valid for numerical models for which reason the investigations can be treated as generic.

Simultaneous measurement of tool torque, traverse force and axial force in friction stir welding
(2013)

Simultaneous measurement of the tool torque, traverse force and axial force during friction stir welding process is of great significance to the understanding of the underlying process mechanism and the optimizing of the process parameters. Different from the traditional measurement methods using load cell or rotating component dynamometer, an indirect but economical methodology is used in this study for the simultaneous measurement of the traverse force, axial force and tool torque by monitoring the output torques of the servo motors and main spindle three-phase AC induction motor inside the FSW machine. The values of the traverse force, axial force and tool torque are determined under different welding conditions, and the influencing factors are examined. The measured results in friction stir welding of AA2024-T4 aluminum alloys at different combinations of tool rotation speed and welding speed lay foundation for process optimization.

Die Mikrostruktur einer Schmelzschweißnaht hat großen Einfluss auf die Heißrissanfälligkeit des Grundwerkstoffs und die mechanischen Eigenschaften der Schweißnaht. Für eine erhöhte Festigkeit, Duktilität und Zähigkeit und eine geringe Heißrissneigung sind anstatt großer, länglicher Körner kleine, globulitische Körner notwendig. Diese Studie berichtet über die Faktoren, die eine solche Schweißnahtkornfeinung hauptsächlich beeinflussen. So wurde für das Wolfram-Intertgasschweißen (WIG-Schweißen) von drei verschiedenen Aluminiumlegierungen der Einfluss der thermischen Bedingungen, der chemischen Zusammensetzung des Schweißguts und der Anzahl und Art der Erstarrungskeime auf die Mikrostruktur klassifiziert.---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The microstructure of fusion welds has a significant influence on the susceptibility of the base material to hot cracking and on the mechanical properties of the weld. Small, globulitic grains are important for increased strength, ductility and toughness and for a low susceptibility to solidification cracking instead of large, columnar grains. This study shows the main influences on such weld metal grain refinement. Therefore, the influence of thermal conditions, the chemical composition of the weld metal and the number and type of solidification nuclei on the microstructure were classified for the TIG welding of three different aluminium alloys.

The microstructure of a fusion weld has great influences on the susceptibility of the base material to hot cracking and on the mechanical properties of the weld. Small, globulitic grains are necessary for increased strength, ductility and toughness and for a low inclination to hot cracking instead of large, oblong grains. This study reports on the factors which exert the main influences on such grain refinement in the weld. Thus, the influences of the thermal conditions, the chemical composition of the weld metal and the number and type of solidification nuclei on the microstructure were classified for the TIG welding of three different aluminium alloys.

The accurate prediction of the thermal energy generation and distribution in friction stir welding process is of great significance for the optimization of the process parameters and the understanding of the underlying mechanisms. In this study, a new method of integrative calculation and measurement is proposed to obtain the more reasonable values of the frictional coefficient and the slip rate, which are both used to characterize the heat generation rate at the tool-workpiece contact interfaces. A three-dimensional model is established to fully couple the energy generation, heat transfer and material flow in friction stir welding of aluminum alloys. The energy produced by both interfacial friction and plastic deformation are taken into consideration. The analysis accuracy of the thermal energy generation and distribution is improved, and the distribution features of thermal energy density in the vicinity of the tool are elucidated. The predicted peak temperature values at some locations are in agreement with the experimentally measured ones.

Microcrack formation during gas metal arc welding of high-strength fine-grained structural steel
(2014)

The recent development of high-performance-modified spray arc processes in gas metal arc welding due to modern digital control technology and inverter power sources enables a focused spray arc, which results in higher penetration depths and welding speed. However, microcracks occurred in the weld metal while approaching the process limits of the modified spray arc, represented by a 20-mm double layer DV-groove butt-weld. These cracks were detected in structural steel exhibiting a yield strength level of up to 960 MPa and are neither dependent on the used weld power source nor a consequence of the modified spray arc process itself. The metallographic and fractographic investigations of the rather exceptional fracture surface lead to the classification of the microcracks as hot cracks. The effects of certain welding parameters on the crack probability are clarified using a statistical design of experiment. However, these microcracks do not impact the design specification for toughness in the Charpy V-notch test (absorbed energy at -40 °C for the present material is 30 J).

Numerical sensitivity analysis of TRIP-parameter K on weld residual stresses for steel S355J2+ N
(2016)

A combined experimental numerical approach is applied for sensitivity analysis of the transformation induced plasticity (TRIP)-parameter K on weld residual stresses for welding of structural steel of grade S355J2+N. K was determined experimentally using the Gleeble 3500 facility. A thermomechanical FE model of the real welding process was experimentally validated against temperature field and X-ray stress measurements. Within sensitivity analyses K was varied by several orders of magnitude and the influence on the calculated residual stresses is evaluated by performing corresponding FEA. The correct order of magnitude is sufficient to reproduce the residual stresses qualitatively and quantitatively.

An experimental setup to integrate laser sensor into conventional GMAW setups via a unified control architecture is described. The setup is used to automate and monitor narrow-gap GMAW. A way to develop GMAW arc-sensors using artificial neural networks using the setup is shown.
The control system is connected to a relational database to store various process measurements. The database can be accessed to filter previous weldments by numerous criteria which allows modelling of process parameter correlation among vast datasets. Such models can be used for process monitoring and control in future applications.

Selecting a welding process for a given application is crucial with respect to the sustainability of part manufacturing. Unfortunately, since welding processes are evaluated by a number of criteria, preferences for one or the other process can be contradictory. However, the prevalent procedure of weight assignment for each criterion is subjective and does not provide information about the entire solution space. From the perspective of a decision maker it is important to be able to assess the entire set of possible weightings and answer the question which welding process is optimal for which set of weights. This issue is investigated by means of a weight space partitioning approach. Two welding processes are considered with respect to three criteria that reflect their economic and environmental performance. In order to find the most sustainable welding process the underlying weight space partition is evaluated.

Increasing performance and energy efficiency of Gas Metal Arc Welding by a high power tandem process
(2016)

Standard Gas Metal Arc Welding (Standard GMAW) and a high power Tandem GMAW (TGMAW) process are evaluated with respect to energy efficiency. Current, voltage and overall equipment power are measured and energy consumption is determined. The new key performance indicator Electrical Deposition Efficiency is introduced to reflect the energy efficiency of GMAW processes. Additionally, wallplug efficiency of the equipment is determined in order to identify the overall energy consumption. Results show that energy efficiency as well as economic process performance can be significantly increased by application of the TGMAW process. Furthermore findings indicate that wall-plug efficiency of the equipment is independent of power level and material transfer mode. A metal plate of 30 mm thick structural steel is joined by Standard GMAW and TGMAW to demonstrate the total energy savings for a real weld. Electricity consumption is reduced by more than 20 % using the high power TGMAW process.

Die im Forschungsvorhaben erzielten Ergebnisse zeigen konkrete technische Lösungen für die automatisierte Anwendung des MSG Engspaltschweißen, sowohl mittels optischer als auch prozessorientierter Sensorik, und sprechen damit ein breites Spektrum möglicher Anwender, insbesondere KMU, an.
Die Seitenführung des Brenners auf Basis der optischen Messgrößen stellt eine robuste und einfach zu implementierende Möglichkeit zur Nahtverfolgung dar. Für die Höhenführung über der Schweißnaht wurde neben der Lösung mittels optischer Messverfahren zusätzlich eine direkt darauf aufbauende Möglichkeit zur Implementierung eines Lichtbogensensors abgeleitet. Das Vorgehen konnte sowohl für Sprühlichtbogenprozesse als auch bei Verwendung von Impulslichtbogenprozessen erfolgreich angewendet werden.
Die zur Sicherstellung eines gleichmäßigen Flankeneinbrandes entwickelte Pendelregelung ist ebenfalls für unterschiedliche Lichtbogenarten einsetzbar und muss vom Anwender auch beim Einsatz einer großen Bandbreite unterschiedlicher Prozessparameter nahezu nicht konfiguriert werden. Neben der im Rahmen der Verfahrensprüfung untersuchten Pendelraupentechnik konnte die Übertragbarkeit des Vorgehens auch auf die Strichraupentechnik anhand von gezielten Schweißversuchen aufgezeigt werden.
Die zunächst auf Basis der optischen Messwerte ausgelegte Füllgradregelung konnte die vorgesehenen Spaltvariationen von 18 bis 24 mm im Rahmen der durchgeführten Verfahrensprüfung ausgleichen. Die Ableitung eines äquivalenten Lichtbogensensors durch Kopplung beider Messprinzipien wurde am Laufzeitende des Vorhabens aufgezeigt, konnte jedoch durch zeitliche Beschränkung nicht für die Verfahrensprüfung berücksichtigt werden.
In Absprache mit dem projektbegleitenden Ausschuss wurde die Entwicklung der Prozessregelung für das Vorhaben auf Schweißungen in Wannenlage und Grundwerkstoffe der Güte S355J2 beschränkt.
Die Qualifizierung des Verfahrens unter Einsatz der beschriebenen Regelalgorithmen nach DIN EN ISO 15614-1 konnte für alle betrachteten Spaltbreiten zwischen 18 und 24 mm anhand einer 50 mm dicken Demonstratorprobe nachgewiesen werden.

Ultrasonic vibration enhanced friction stir welding (UVeFSW) is a recent modification of conventional friction stir welding (FSW), which transmits ultrasonic vibration directly into the localized area of the workpiece near and ahead of the rotating tool. In this study, a high strength aluminium alloy (2024-T4) was welded by this process and conventional FSW, respectively. Then tensile tests, microhardness tests and fracture surface analysis were performed successively on the welding samples. The tests results reveal that ultrasonic vibration can improve the tensile strength and the elongation of welded joints. The microhardness of the stir zone also increases.

Evaluating innovative process technologies has become highly important within the last decades. As standard tools different Life Cycle Assessment methods have been established, which are continuously improved. While those are designed for evaluating single processes they run into difficulties when it comes to assessing environmental impacts of process innovations at macroeconomic level. In this paper we develop a multi-step evaluation framework building on multi regional inputeoutput data that allows estimating macroeconomic impacts of new process technologies, considering the network characteristics of the global economy.
Our procedure is as follows: i) we measure differences in material usage of process alternatives, ii) we identify where the standard processes are located within economic networks and virtually replace those by innovative process technologies, iii) we account for changes within economic systems and evaluate impacts on emissions.
Within this paper we exemplarily apply the methodology to two recently developed innovative technologies: longitudinal large diameter steel pipe welding and turning of high-temperature resistant materials. While we find the macroeconomic impacts of very specific process innovations to be small, its conclusions can significantly differ from traditional process based approaches. Furthermore, information gained from the methodology provides relevant additional insights for decision makers extending the picture gained from traditional process life cycle assessment.

Effect of cooling rate on microstructure and properties of microalloyed HSLA steel weld metals
(2015)

Two high strength Nb/Ti microalloyed S690QL steels were welded with identical filler material, varying welding parameters to obtain three cooling rates: slow, medium and fast cooling. As cooling rate increased, the predominantly acicular ferrite in Nb weld metal (WM) is substituted by bainite, with a consequence of obvious hardness increase, but in Ti WM, no great variation of acicular ferrite at all cooling rates contributed to little increment of hardness. The transition between bainite and acicular ferrite has been analysed from the point view of inclusions characteristics, chemical composition and cooling rate. Excellent Charpy toughness at 233 K was obtained with acicular ferrite as predominantly microstructure. Even with bainite weld of high hardness, the toughness was nearly enough to fulfill the minimal requirements. WM for Ti steel showed to be markedly less sensitive to the variations of cooling rate than that for Nb steel.