The Paradox of Freedom and Its Utopia – A Textual Interpretation of >Escape from Freedom< [自由的悖论及其乌托邦——《逃避自由》的文本阐释]

  • 弗洛姆针对第二次世界大战的发生,将弗洛伊德的精神学说和马克思理论相结合,弗洛姆认为自由是近现代欧美资本主义国家追求的核心概念,寄托了人们摆脱束缚的需求。自由是人的本质,它是随着个体化的加深而不断发展。在其发展过程中,一方面是个体力量的增长,另一方面则是孤独感的加深。这使自由呈现出一种悖论:获得自由意味着失去安全感和归属感,安全感和归属感的获得又使个体失去自由。人在两难困境中会逃避自由,并存在着逃避自由的三种机制——权威主义、破坏欲、机械趋同。弗洛姆认为实现积极自由既能使人保持个性与完整性,又能建立与世界的联系,从而获得一种安全感和归属感,但其提倡以爱和劳动来实现积极自由则带有乌托邦的色彩。
  • In response to the Second World War, Fromm combined Freudian spirituality with Marxian theory. Fromm argued that freedom was a central concept pursued in modern European and American capitalist countries, and that it underpinned people's need to be free from bondage. Freedom is the essence of the human being, and it evolves with the deepening of individuation. In the process of its development, there is an increase in individual power on the one hand, and a deepening sense of isolation on the other. This presents freedom as a paradox: the acquisition of freedom means the loss of security and belonging, and the acquisition of security and belonging leads to the loss of freedom. The dilemma is that people avoid freedom, and there are three mechanisms for doing so - authoritarianism, destructiveness, and mechanical convergence. Fromm believes that the achievement of positive freedom allows one to maintain one's individuality and integrity while establishing a sense of security and belonging to the world, but his advocacy of love and labor to achieve positive freedom has utopian overtones. [Automatic translation]

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Author:Suhang Zhang
Parent Title (Chinese):Modern and Ancient Culture [今古文创], No. 4 (2020), pp. 27-30.
Document Type:Articles
Year of first Publication:2020
Release Date:2022/05/04
Format:no download and copy possible
Writings about Erich Fromm (Secondary Literature):Articles / Artikel
Erich Fromm's Library and Erich Fromm Archive:Articles / Artikel
Licence (German):
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