Several Fables in >Zhuangzi< from the Perspective of Western Power Theories [西方权力理论视阈下的几则《庄子》寓言]

  • 本文借助福柯、弗洛伊德、马克思等人的权力理论分析《庄子》中儒生入仕、伯乐治马、不材之木、哑雁命薄等几则寓言。颜回、颜阖等儒生的仕途危机暗讽臣子才德只能迎合滥施酷刑的君主权力,其抑制君权的忠义仁孝等灵魂技术也类同于弗洛姆诊断的权威主义。相应地,孔子教导的心斋并非入仕之法,而是消解以尘世大他者欲望和法则为核心的自我理想,将知识分子引向不得已为之的机械化状态,从而破坏整个封建圣人之治抑或>大他者集体<,进入拉康的拓扑第四环>圣症<。庄子继而通过伯乐对野马的治理隐喻以古代人种学为基础的规训权力和生命权力,揭示圣人之治实则是煽动智巧竞赛和利欲争斗的人性堕落>集中营<,这同样预警当今资本权力以生产利润指标鲸吞人性和自然的危机。在对这世俗权力的揭批和自我理想的湮灭之上,庄子以实体即主体(天人合一)的思维,在大他者空缺中为知识分子指出了不材之木的人生道路,暗示他们必须如坏木、神木、毒木那般>不才权力<才能逃脱权力的规训和惩罚,但同时他也借哑雁被宰杀的故事担忧材与不材之间的艰难抉择,并指出天道的超时空拯救力。
  • This article draws on the power theories of Foucault, Freud and Marx to analyze several parables in Zhuangzi, such as the entry of Confucian scholars, the treatment of horses by Bole, the wood of untalented people, and the thin fate of the dumb goose. The crisis in the career of Confucian scholars such as Yan Hui and Yan Helu implies that the talent of the subject can only cater to the power of the abusive monarch, and that the soul techniques of loyalty, benevolence and filial piety that inhibit the power of the monarch are similar to Fromm's diagnosis of authoritarianism. Accordingly, Confucius's teaching of the heart is not a way to enter the world, but a way to dissolve the ideal of the self, which is centered on the desires and laws of the earthly Other, leading intellectuals to a mechanical state of necessity, thus destroying the entire rule of the feudal sage or the >Great Other Collective<, and entering the fourth loop of Lacan's topology, the >holy disease<. Zhuangzi goes on to reveal that the rule of the sage is in fact a >concentration camp< of human decadence that incites intellectual competition and lucrative rivalry, through the metaphor of the governance of the wild horse by the bole, which also warns of the crisis of the present-day capitalist power to whale away humanity and nature with its profit-producing targets. On top of the criticism of this worldly power and the annihilation of the ideal of the self, Zhuangzi uses the thinking of the entity as the subject (the unity of heaven and man) to point out for intellectuals the path of life of untalented wood in the vacancy of the Great Other, suggesting that they must be >untalented in power< like bad wood, divine wood, and poisonous wood in order to escape the discipline and punishment of power, but at the same time he also uses the story of the mute goose being slaughtered to worry about the difficult choice between untalented and untalented wood, and He also uses the story of the slaughter of the mute goose to worry about the difficult choice between material and nonmaterial, and to point out the power of the heavenly path to save. [Automatic translation]

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Author:Jian Chen
Parent Title (Chinese):New Horizons from Tianfu [天府新论], No. 1 (2021), pp. 58-71.
Document Type:Articles
Year of first Publication:2021
Release Date:2022/05/04
Format:no download and copy possible
Writings about Erich Fromm (Secondary Literature):Articles / Artikel
Erich Fromm's Library and Erich Fromm Archive:Articles / Artikel
Licence (German):
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