The >Sociality< and the >Mentality< – Fromm's Diagnosis, Treatment and Rescue [>世道<与>人心< – 弗洛姆的诊断、治疗和拯救], Master thesis, Foreign Marxism Research, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China 2012.

  • 在弗洛姆看来,异化既是>世道<的病态,也是>人心<的病态。马克思是针对>世道<病态的人道抗议者,劳动异化本质上是人性异化和非人化,而马克思的目标是人的自由和解放。弗洛伊德是针对>人心<病态的人道关怀者,异化亦是心理的异化,表现为原欲的压抑和疏离的体验,因此人的解放亦是人心的解放。弗洛姆对异化的社会病理诊断,是从人性世界的精神诊断入手的。人性是善恶同体的。从个体性格看,爱生、爱人和独立性是积极的品质,爱死、自恋和乱伦固结是消极的品质。从社会性格看,创生倾向、成长综合症等是积极的品质,非创生倾向、衰败综合症等是消极的品质。弗洛姆对异化的社会治疗方案,包括了从>世道<到>人心<的各个维度和层面:消除人性的异化,满足人的需求,包括爱、自由及自我实现的需求等,是治疗的人道目标,这个目标通过培养健全的人格和建构健全的社会来共同完成。弗洛姆的拯救,是把爱作为一种伦理原则和一种信仰:人的世界应该是爱的世界,爱既是对人的信任,也是一种积极的自由。爱是一种艺术,需要克服个人的自恋,发展谦卑,需要客观性和理性以及培养他生性。弗洛姆启示我们:人性是一个既包括自然属性又包括社会属性,既包括理性又包括感性,既包括意识又包括无意识的多维度、多层面的范畴,>以人为本<应以这个人性范畴为本,而>和谐社会<的建设,也应该包括从>世道<到>人心<的多个维度和多个层面,是系统性的和整合性的。
  • In Fromm’s Theory, alienation was not only a disease of the society, but also a disease of hearts. On one hand, the essentials of alienation of labor are dehumanization and alienation of human nature in Marxist, who is the protestor of humanity aiming to liberate human beings. On the other hand, Freud is also a humanist who believes alienation is the alienation of minds, in which desire is suppressed and abnormal and the liberation of human beings are also that of hearts. Pathological diagnosed by Fromm started from the spiritual diagnose of human beings’ world. Humanity is the combination of both kind and evil. Loving life, loving others and independence are positive characters from the view of individual’s character, while loving death, autophilia and fornication are negative. Creation tendency and growth syndrome are positive from the respect of social character, while anti-creation tendency and decline syndrome are negative. The therapeutic schedule raised by Fromm contains every aspect from >hearts< to >society<: satisfying human beings’ needs, including needs of love, aspire of liberty, self-actualization and so on. This is the humanity objective of his therapeutic schedule, which is realized by developing a sane personality and constructing a sane society. Fromm’s treatment is to set love a principle of ethics and a faith: the world of human beings should be filled of love, which is the trust of human beings as well as a positive liberty. Love is an art that needs to overcome the autophilia of one self and develop humility, objecttivity, rationality and exogeneity. The >sane society< should contain a lot of different levels and aspects from >hearts< to >society<, which should be constructed systematically considering every factor. Fromm’s theory is meaningful for >the sane society< but its applicable conditions and specific researches shouldn’t be ignored. [Author’s translation]

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Author:Dai Zhu
Document Type:Dissertations
Year of first Publication:2012
Release Date:2016/09/29
Format:no download and copy possible
Writings about Erich Fromm (Secondary Literature):Dissertations / Dissertationen
Erich Fromm's Library and Erich Fromm Archive:Dissertations / Dissertationen
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