The Analysis and Comparison of Fromm and Berlin’s Liberal Theory [弗洛姆逃避自由理论和柏林两种自由理论之分析与比较], Master thesis, Foreign Marxist Theory, Southwest University, Yubei, Chongqing, China 2012.

  • 本文就弗洛姆和柏林的自由理论分别进行了进行解读和分析。其中从自由是个心理学问题,人性与社会的两种适应关系,自由对人的双重影响、宗教改革和当代的自由、逃避自由的心理机制以及如何克服消极意义上的自由等多个方面解读了弗洛姆的自由思想。弗洛姆认为现代的我们比任何时候的人都需要自由,然而却没有享受到真正的自由,相反却是逃避自由。造成这个结果的原因主要是由社会和人心理双重压力所致。一方面,人越来越独立自由,越来越富有批判精神。同时,越来越孤立、孤独、微不足道、无能为力。另一方面,逃避孤独、是人性中固有的因素。弗洛姆认为逃避自由的主要机制就是权威主义、破坏欲和机械趋同。同时他也区分了消极自由与积极自由。本文对柏林的分析是从积极自由和消极自由、自我实现、多元论思想等进行的,伯林区分了消极自由和积极自由,认为>消极自由<为个人行动不受他人干涉的区域;>积极自由<意味着个人的生活和选择是由自己而不是任何异己的因素所决定。他极力推崇消极自由。但伯林的消极自由观也蕴含了内在的危机。同时文章也对两者的自由理论进行比较。他们都认为自由分为积极和消极自由。更多的是不同点,本文主要从他们对两种自由概念的理解、两种自由的侧重点,以及达到自由的途径不同,理论贡献和缺陷等四个方面进行分析。
  • The Fromm and Berlin’s freedom theory are analyzed in this article. This article express Fromm’s thought of freedom in many ways, such as freedom is a psychological problems, human and social adaptation, the dual influence of freedom on people, religious reform and the contemporary freedom,, freedom of the mechanism and how to overcome the negative sense of freedom. Fromm thinks that the modern people need freedom more than any time. However, they did not enjoy the real freedom. Instead, they escaped from freedom. This result is caused mainly by social and psychological pressure. On one hand, people own more and more freedom, they have more and more critical spirit. At the same time, they are more and more isolated, lonely, not worth mentioning, incapable of action. On the other hand, escaping from loneliness is the inherent human factors. Fromm thinks that the main mechanism of escaping from freedom is authoritative, destruction and mechanical convergence. He also distinguishes between negative freedom and positive liberty. - This paper analysis Berlin in such ways: the positive and negative liberty, freedom of self realization, pluralism thought. Berlin distinguishes between negative freedom and positive liberty, he thinks that >negative liberty< is the area for individuals to act without interference from others.>Positive freedom< means the individual life and the choice is made by themselves rather than by any alien decision factors. He highly praised the negative freedom. But Berlin’s negative view of freedom also contains internal crisis. At the same time, the article also compares the two freedom theories. They all think that freedom is divided into positive and negative liberty. This article emphasis analysis the difference in four aspects, such as two kinds of free concepts, focus on two kinds of freedom, the different ways to reach freedom, theoretical contribution and defect. [Author’s translation]

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Author:Bohua Xia
Document Type:Dissertations
Year of first Publication:2012
Release Date:2016/09/29
Format:no download and copy possible
Writings about Erich Fromm (Secondary Literature):Dissertations / Dissertationen
Erich Fromm's Library and Erich Fromm Archive:Dissertations / Dissertationen
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