## 90C27 Combinatorial optimization

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The Periodic Event Scheduling Problem (PESP) is the standard mathematical tool for optimizing periodic timetabling problems in public transport. A solution to PESP consists of three parts: a periodic timetable, a periodic tension, and integer periodic offset values. While the space of periodic tension has received much attention in the past, we explore geometric properties of the other two components, establishing novel connections between periodic timetabling and discrete geometry. Firstly, we study the space of feasible periodic timetables, and decompose it into polytropes, i.e., polytopes that are convex both classically and in the sense of tropical geometry. We then study this decomposition and use it to outline a new heuristic for PESP, based on the tropical neighbourhood of the polytropes. Secondly, we recognize that the space of fractional cycle offsets is in fact a zonotope. We relate its zonotopal tilings back to the hyperrectangle of fractional periodic tensions and to the tropical neighbourhood of the periodic timetable space. To conclude we also use this new understanding to give tight lower bounds on the minimum width of an integral cycle basis.

We propose a hybrid discrete-continuous algorithm for flight planning in free flight airspaces. In a first step, our DisCOptER method discrete-continuous optimization for enhanced resolution) computes a globally optimal approximate flight path on a discretization of the problem using the A* method. This route initializes a Newton method that converges rapidly to the smooth optimum in a second step. The correctness, accuracy, and complexity of the method are goverened by the choice of the crossover point that determines the coarseness of the discretization. We analyze the optimal choice of the crossover point and demonstrate the asymtotic superority of DisCOptER over a purely discrete approach.

Umsteigen ohne Warten
(2017)

Wir stellen einen mathematischen Optimierungsansatz zur Berechnung von periodischen Taktfahrplänen vor, bei dem die Umsteigezeiten unter
Berücksichtigung des Passagierverhaltens minimiert werden. Wir untersuchen damit den Einfluss wichtiger Systemparameter und Verhaltensmuster auf die Beförderungsqualität.

In this paper we present a novel extended formulation for the line planning problem that is based on what we call “configurations” of lines and frequencies. Configurations account for all possible options to provide a required transportation capacity on an infrastructure edge. The proposed configuration model is strong in the sense that it implies several facet-defining inequalities for the standard model: set cover, symmetric band, MIR, and multicover inequalities. These theoretical findings can be confirmed in computational results. Further, we show how this concept can be generalized to define configurations for subsets of edges; the generalized model implies additional inequalities from the line planning literature.

The task of periodic timetabling is to schedule the trips in a public transport system by determining arrival and departure times at every station such that travel and transfer times are minimized. To date, the optimization literature generally assumes that passengers do not respond to changes in the timetable, i.e., the passenger routes are fixed. This is unrealistic and ignores potentially valuable degrees of freedom. We investigate in this paper periodic timetabling models with integrated passenger routing. We show that different routing models have a huge influence on the quality of the entire system: Whatever metric is applied, the performance ratios of timetables w.r.t. to different routing models can be arbitrarily large. Computations on a real-world instance for the city of Wuppertal substantiate the theoretical findings. These results indicate the existence of untapped optimization potentials that can be used to improve the efficiency of public transport systems.

The task of timetabling is to schedule the trips in a public transport system by determining periodic arrival and departure times at every station. The goal is to provide a service that is both attractive for passengers and can be operated economically. To date, timetable optimization is generally done with respect to fixed passenger routes, i.e., it is assumed that passengers do not respond to changes in the timetable. This is unrealistic and ignores potentially valuable degrees of freedom. We investigate in this paper periodic timetabling models with integrated passenger routing. We propose several models that differ in the allowed passenger paths and the objectives. We compare these models theoretically and report on computations on real-world instances for the city of Wuppertal.

We consider multi-commodity flow problems in which capacities are installed on paths. In this setting, it is often important to distinguish between flows on direct connection routes, using single paths, and flows that include path switching. We derive a feasibility condition for path capacities supporting such direct connection flows similar to the feasibility condition for arc capacities in ordinary multi-commodity flows.
The concept allows to solve large-scale real-world line planning problems in public transport including a novel passenger routing model that favors direct connections over connections with transfers.

The integrated line planning and passenger routing problem is an important planning problem in service design of public transport. A major challenge is the treatment of transfers. A main property of a line system is its connectivity.
In this paper we show that analysing the connecvitiy aspect of a line plan gives a new idea to handle the transfer aspect of the line planning problem.

In this article we describe the impact from embedding a 15 year old model for solving the Steiner tree problem in graphs in a state-of-the-art MIP-Framework, making the result run in a massively parallel environment and extending the model to solve as many variants as possible. We end up with a high-perfomance solver that is capable of solving previously unsolved instances and, in contrast to its predecessor, is freely available for academic research.