## 90-XX OPERATIONS RESEARCH, MATHEMATICAL PROGRAMMING

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Public transportation networks are typically operated with a periodic timetable. The Periodic Event Scheduling Problem (PESP) is the standard mathematical modelling tool for periodic timetabling. Since PESP can be solved in linear time on trees, it is a natural question to ask whether there are polynomial-time algorithms for input networks of bounded treewidth. We show that deciding the feasibility of a PESP instance is NP-hard even when the treewidth is 2, the branchwidth is 2, or the carvingwidth is 3. Analogous results hold for the optimization of reduced PESP instances, where the feasibility problem is trivial. To complete the picture, we present two pseudo-polynomial-time dynamic programming algorithms solving PESP on input networks with bounded tree- or branchwidth. We further analyze the parameterized complexity of PESP with bounded cyclomatic number, diameter, or vertex cover number. For event-activity networks with a special -- but standard -- structure, we give explicit and sharp bounds on the branchwidth in terms of the maximum degree and the carvingwidth of an underlying line network. Finally, we investigate several parameters on the smallest instance of the benchmarking library PESPlib.

This paper investigates the estimation of the size of Branch-and-Bound (B&B) trees for solving mixed-integer programs. We first prove that the size of the B&B tree cannot be approximated within a factor of~2 for general binary programs, unless P equals NP. Second, we review measures of the progress of the B&B search, such as the gap, and propose a new measure, which we call leaf frequency.
We study two simple ways to transform these progress measures into B&B tree size estimates, either as a direct projection, or via double-exponential smoothing, a standard time-series forecasting technique. We then combine different progress measures and their trends into nontrivial estimates using Machine Learning techniques, which yields more precise estimates than any individual measure. The best method we have identified uses all individual measures as features of a random forest model.
In a large computational study, we train and validate all methods on the publicly available MIPLIB and Coral general purpose benchmark sets. On average, the best method estimates B&B tree sizes within a factor of 3 on the set of unseen test instances even during the early stage of the search, and improves in accuracy as the search progresses. It also achieves a factor 2 over the entire search on each out of six additional sets of homogeneous instances we have tested. All techniques are available in version 7 of the branch-and-cut framework SCIP.

The SCIP Optimization Suite provides a collection of software packages for
mathematical optimization centered around the constraint integer programming frame-
work SCIP. This paper discusses enhancements and extensions contained in version 7.0
of the SCIP Optimization Suite. The new version features the parallel presolving library
PaPILO as a new addition to the suite. PaPILO 1.0 simplifies mixed-integer linear op-
timization problems and can be used stand-alone or integrated into SCIP via a presolver
plugin. SCIP 7.0 provides additional support for decomposition algorithms. Besides im-
provements in the Benders’ decomposition solver of SCIP, user-defined decomposition
structures can be read, which are used by the automated Benders’ decomposition solver
and two primal heuristics. Additionally, SCIP 7.0 comes with a tree size estimation
that is used to predict the completion of the overall solving process and potentially
trigger restarts. Moreover, substantial performance improvements of the MIP core were
achieved by new developments in presolving, primal heuristics, branching rules, conflict
analysis, and symmetry handling. Last, not least, the report presents updates to other
components and extensions of the SCIP Optimization Suite, in particular, the LP solver
SoPlex and the mixed-integer semidefinite programming solver SCIP-SDP.

In a recent paper, Conte et al. [CGMR2017] presented an algorithm for enumerating all acyclic orientations of a graph G=(V,E) with a single source (and related orientations) with delay O(|V||E|). In this paper we revisit the problem by going back to an early paper by de Fraysseix et al. [FMR1995], who proposed an algorithm for enumerating all bipolar orientations of a graph based on a recursion formula. We first formalize de Fraysseix et al.'s algorithm for bipolar orientations and determine that its delay is also O(|V||E|). We then apply their recursion formula to the case of Conte et al.'s enumeration problem and show that this yields a more efficient enumeration algorithm with delay O(\sqrt(|V|)|E|). Finally, a way to further streamline the algorithm that leads to a particularly simple implementation is suggested.

Maximal Quadratic-Free Sets
(2019)

The intersection cut paradigm is a powerful framework that facilitates
the generation of valid linear inequalities, or cutting planes, for a potentially complex set S. The key ingredients in this construction are a
simplicial conic relaxation of S and an S-free set: a convex zone whose
interior does not intersect S. Ideally, such S-free set would be maximal
inclusion-wise, as it would generate a deeper cutting plane. However, maximality can be a challenging goal in general. In this work, we show how
to construct maximal S-free sets when S is defined as a general quadratic
inequality. Our maximal S-free sets are such that efficient separation of
a vertex in LP-based approaches to quadratically constrained problems is
guaranteed. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first to provide
maximal quadratic-free sets.

Improved optimization models for potential-driven network flow problems via ASTS orientations
(2019)

The class of potential-driven network flow problems provides important models for a range of infrastructure networks that lead to hard-to-solve MINLPs in real-world applications. On large-scale meshed networks the relaxations usually employed are rather weak due to cycles in the network. To address this situation, we introduce the concept of ASTS orientations, a generalization of bipolar orientations, as a combinatorial relaxation of feasible solutions of potential-driven flow problems, study their structure, and show how they can be used to strengthen existing relaxations and thus provide improved optimization models. Our computational results indicate that ASTS orientations can be used to derive much stronger bounds on the flow variables than existing bound tightening methods and to yield significant performance improvements for an existing state-of-the-art MILP model for large-scale gas networks.

The most important ingredient for solving mixed-integer nonlinear programs (MINLPs) to global epsilon-optimality with spatial branch and bound is a tight, computationally tractable relaxation. Due to both theoretical and practical considerations, relaxations of MINLPs are usually required to be convex. Nonetheless, current optimization solver can often successfully handle a moderate presence of nonconvexities, which opens the door for the use of potentially tighter nonconvex relaxations. In this work, we exploit this fact and make use of a nonconvex relaxation obtained via aggregation of constraints: a surrogate relaxation. These relaxations were actively studied for linear integer programs in the 70s and 80s, but they have been scarcely considered since. We revisit these relaxations in an MINLP setting and show the computational benefits and challenges they can have. Additionally, we study a generalization of such relaxation that allows for multiple aggregations simultaneously and present the first algorithm that is capable of computing the best set of aggregations. We propose a multitude of computational enhancements for improving its practical performance and evaluate the algorithm’s ability to generate strong dual bounds through extensive computational experiments.

Urban transportation systems are subject to a high level of variation and fluctuation in demand over the day. When this variation and fluctuation are observed in both time and space, it is crucial to develop line plans that are responsive to demand. A multi-period line planning approach that considers a changing demand during the planning horizon is proposed. If such systems are also subject to limitations of resources, a dynamic transfer of resources from one line to another throughout the planning horizon should also be considered. A mathematical modelling framework is developed to solve the line planning problem with transfer of resources during a finite length planning horizon of multiple periods. We analyze whether or not multi-period solutions outperform single period solutions in terms of feasibility and relevant costs. The importance of demand variation on multi-period solutions is investigated. We evaluate the impact of resource transfer constraints on the effectiveness of solutions. We also study the effect of line type designs and question the choice of period lengths along with the problem parameters that are significant for and sensitive to the optimality of solutions.

In this dissertation, we study matchings and flows in hypergraphs using combinatorial methods. These two problems are among the best studied in the field of combinatorial optimization. As hypergraphs are a very general concept, not many results on graphs can be generalized to arbitrary hypergraphs. Therefore, we consider special classes of hypergraphs, which admit more structure, to transfer results from graph theory to hypergraph theory. In Chapter 2, we investigate the perfect matching problem on different classes of hypergraphs generalizing bipartite graphs. First, we give a polynomial time approximation algorithm for the maximum weight matching problem on so-called partitioned hypergraphs, whose approximation factor is best possible up to a constant. Afterwards, we look at the theorems of König and Hall and their relation. Our main result is a condition for the existence of perfect matchings in normal hypergraphs that generalizes Hall’s condition for bipartite graphs. In Chapter 3, we consider perfect f-matchings, f-factors, and (g,f)-matchings. We prove conditions for the existence of (g,f)-matchings in unimodular hypergraphs, perfect f-matchings in uniform Mengerian hypergraphs, and f-factors in uniform balanced hypergraphs. In addition, we give an overview about the complexity of the (g,f)-matching problem on different classes of hypergraphs generalizing bipartite graphs. In Chapter 4, we study the structure of hypergraphs that admit a perfect matching. We show that these hypergraphs can be decomposed along special cuts. For graphs it is known that the resulting decomposition is unique, which does not hold for hypergraphs in general. However, we prove the uniqueness of this decomposition (up to parallel hyperedges) for uniform hypergraphs. In Chapter 5, we investigate flows on directed hypergraphs, where we focus on graph-based directed hypergraphs, which means that every hyperarc is the union of a set of pairwise disjoint ordinary arcs. We define a residual network, which can be used to decide whether a given flow is optimal or not. Our main result in this chapter is an algorithm that computes a minimum cost flow on a graph-based directed hypergraph. This algorithm is a generalization of the network simplex algorithm.

In this paper, we consider the Cyclic Crew Rostering Problem with Fairness Requirements (CCRP-FR). In this problem, attractive cyclic rosters have to be constructed for groups of employees, considering multiple, a priori determined, fairness levels. The attractiveness follows from the structure of the rosters (e.g., sufficient rest times and variation in work), whereas fairness is based on the work allocation among the different roster groups. We propose a three-phase heuristic for the CCRP-FR, which combines the strength of column generation techniques with a large-scale neighborhood search algorithm. The design of the heuristic assures that good solutions for all fairness levels are obtained quickly, and can still be further improved if additional running time is available. We evaluate the performance of the algorithm using real-world data from Netherlands Railways, and show that the heuristic finds close to optimal solutions for many of the considered instances. In particular, we show that the heuristic is able to quickly find major improvements upon the current sequential practice: For most instances, the heuristic is able to increase the attractiveness by at least 20% in just a few minutes.