## 90B18 Communication networks [See also 68M10, 94A05]

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- Mathematical Optimization (14)

Energy-efficient operation of large telecommunication networks is an important issue today and in the near future. Given that the energy consumption rises with the ever increasing demand for capacity and network speed, there is a growing interest in strategies for a sustainable network management. It is a well-known fact that traffic demands vary significantly over time, most notably in day/night- and in weekly cycles. This provides the main potential for energy-saving strategies. We study the question of how much power is necessary to operate a network with state-of-the-art hardware during peak or low-traffic times. The study respects realistic side constraints, such as protection requirements and routing schemes, and takes the special structure of an extensive nation-wide optical network, including backbone and regional sections, into account. We formulate mixed integer programming models for the corresponding optimization problems using predictions for traffic matrices, as well as state-of-the-art hardware and power models. We address questions as the following: How much energy is spent in the core and in metro regions of the network and how big are the savings in low-demand scenarios if we always assume the system power-minimum in these situations? What is the influence of different hardware on the overall energy consumption? How much do different routing schemes or protection scenarios restrict potential energy savings?

In this paper, we study the influence of technology, traffic properties and price trends on optimized
design of a reference IP-over-WDM network with rich underlying fiber topology. In each network node,
we investigate the optimal degree of traffic switching in an optical (lambda) domain versus an electrical
(packet) domain, also known as measure of \emph{node transparency}. This measure is studied in connection to changes in
traffic volume,
demand affinity, optical circuit speeds and equipment cost. By applying variable design constraints,
we assess the relative roles of the two distinct equipment groups, IP routers and optical
cross-connects, with respect to resulting changes in cost-sensitive network architectures.

Traffic in communication networks fluctuates heavily over time.
Thus, to avoid capacity bottlenecks, operators highly overestimate
the traffic volume during network planning. In this paper we
consider telecommunication network design under traffic uncertainty,
adapting the robust optimization approach of Bertsimas and Sim [2004]. We
present three different mathematical formulations for this problem,
provide valid inequalities, study the computational implications,
and evaluate the realized robustness.
To enhance the performance of the mixed-integer programming solver
we derive robust cutset inequalities generalizing their
deterministic counterparts. Instead of a single cutset inequality
for every network cut, we derive multiple valid
inequalities by exploiting the extra variables available in the
robust formulations. We show that these inequalities define facets
under certain conditions and that they completely describe a projection
of the robust cutset polyhedron if the cutset consists of a single edge.
For realistic networks and live traffic measurements we compare the
formulations and report on the speed up by the valid inequalities.
We study the "price of robustness" and evaluate the
approach by analyzing the real network load. The results show that
the robust optimization approach has the potential to support
network planners better than present methods.

Mobile communication is nowadays taken for granted. Having started
primarily as a service for speech communication, data service and
mobile Internet access are now driving the evolution of network
infrastructure. Operators are facing the challenge to match the
demand by continuously expanding and upgrading the network
infrastructure. However, the evolution of the customer's demand is uncertain.
We introduce a novel (long-term) network planning approach based on
multistage stochastic programming, where demand evolution is considered as
a stochastic process and the network is extended as to maximize the
expected profit. The approach proves capable of designing large-scale
realistic UMTS networks with a time-horizon of several years. Our
mathematical optimization model, the solution approach, and computational
results are presented in this paper.

Application of Multistage Stochastic Programming in Strategic Telecommunication Network Planning
(2010)

Telecommunication is fundamental for the information society. In both, the
private and the professional sector, mobile communication is nowadays taken
for granted. Starting primarily as a service for speech communication, data
service and mobile Internet access are now driving the evolution of network
infrastructure. In the year 2009, 19 million users generated over 33
million GB of traffic using mobile data services. The 3rd generation
networks (3G or UMTS) in Germany comprises over 39,000 base stations with
some 120,000 cells. From 1998 to 2008, the four network operators in
Germany invested over 33 billion Euros in their infrastructure. A careful
allocation of the resources is thus crucial for the profitability for a
network operator: a network should be dimensioned to match customers
demand. As this demand evolves over time, the infrastructure has to evolve
accordingly. The demand evolution is hard to predict and thus constitutes a
strong source of uncertainty. Strategic network planning has to take this
uncertainty into account, and the planned network evolution should adapt to
changing market conditions. The application of superior planning methods
under the consideration of uncertainty can improve the profitability of the
network and creates a competitive advantage. Multistage stochastic
programming is a suitable framework to model strategic telecommunication
network planning.
We present mathematical models and effective optimization procedures for
strategic cellular network design. The demand evolution is modeled as a
continuous stochastic process which is approximated by a discrete scenario
tree. A tree-stage approach is used for the construction of non-uniform
scenario trees that serve as input of the stochastic program. The model is
calibrated by historical traffic observations. A realistic system model of
UMTS radio cells is used that determines coverage areas and cell capacities
and takes signal propagation and interferences into account. The network
design problem is formulated as a multistage stochastic mixed integer
linear program, which is solved using state-of-the-art commercial MIP
solvers. Problem specific presolving is proposed to reduce the problem
size. Computational results on realistic data is presented. Optimization
for the expected profit and the conditional value at risk are performed and
compared.

Affinely-Adjustable Robust Counterparts provide tractable alternatives to (two-stage) robust
programs with arbitrary recourse. We apply them to robust network design with polyhedral demand
uncertainty, introducing the affine routing principle.
We compare the affine routing to the well-studied static and dynamic routing schemes for robust
network design.
All three schemes are embedded into the general framework of two-stage network design with recourse.
It is shown that affine routing can be seen as a generalization of the widely used static
routing still being tractable and providing cheaper solutions. We investigate properties on the
demand polytope under which affine routings reduce to static routings and also develop conditions on
the uncertainty set leading to dynamic routings being affine. We show however that affine routings
suffer from the drawback that (even totally) dominated demand vectors are not necessarily supported
by affine solutions. Uncertainty sets have to be designed accordingly. Finally, we present
computational results on networks from SNDlib. We conclude that for these instances the
optimal solutions based on affine routings tend to be as cheap as optimal network designs for
dynamic routings. In this respect the affine routing principle can be used to approximate the cost
for two-stage solutions with free recourse which are hard to compute.

We estimate potential energy savings in IP-over-WDM networks achieved by switching off router line cards in low-demand hours. We compare three approaches to react on dynamics in the IP traffic over time, FUFL, DUFL and DUDL. They provide different levels of freedom in adjusting the routing of lightpaths in the WDM layer and the routing of demands in the IP layer. Using MILP models based on three realistic network topologies as well as realistic demands, power, and cost values, we show that already a simple monitoring of the lightpath utilization in order to deactivate empty line cards (FUFL) brings substantial benefits. The most significant savings, however, are achieved by rerouting traffic in the IP layer (DUFL), which allows emptying and deactivating lightpaths together with the corresponding line cards. A sophisticated reoptimization of the virtual topologies and the routing in the optical domain for every demand scenario (DUDL) yields nearly no additional profits in the considered networks. These results are independent of the ratio between the demand and capacity granularities, the time scale and the network topology, and show little dependency on the demand structure.

Nowadays most data networks use shortest path protocols such as OSPF or IS-IS to route traffic. Given administrative routing lengths for the links of a network, all data packets are sent along shortest paths with respect to these lengths from their source to their destination. One of the most fundamental problems in planning shortest path networks is to decide whether a given set of routing paths forms a valid routing and, if this is not the case, to find a small subset of the given paths that cannot be shortest paths simultaneously for any routing lengths. In this paper we show that it is NP-hard to approximate the size of the smallest shortest path conflict by a factor less than 7/6.

Most data networks nowadays use shortest path protocols to route the traffic. Given administrative routing lengths for the links of the network, all data packets are sent along shortest paths with respect to these lengths from their source to their destination. In this paper, we present an integer programming algorithm for the minimum congestion unsplittable shortest path routing problem, which arises in the operational planning of such networks. Given a capacitated directed graph and a set of communication demands, the goal is to find routing lengths that define a unique shortest path for each demand and minimize the maximum congestion over all links in the resulting routing. We illustrate the general decomposition approach our algorithm is based on, present the integer and linear programming models used to solve the master and the client problem, and discuss the most important implementational aspects. Finally, we report computational results for various benchmark problems, which demonstrate the efficiency of our algorithm.

This thesis is concerned with dimensioning and routing optimization problems for communication networks that employ a shortest path routing protocol such as OSPF, IS-IS, or RIP. These protocols are widely used in the Internet. With these routing protocols, all end-to-end data streams are routed along shortest paths with respect to a metric of link lengths. The network administrator can configure the routing only by modifying this metric. In this thesis we consider the unsplittable shortest path routing variant, where each communication demand must be sent unsplit through the network. This requires that all shortest paths are uniquely determined. The major difficulties in planning such networks are that the routing can be controlled only indirectly via the routing metric and that all routing paths depend on the same routing metric. This leads to rather complicated and subtle interdependencies among the paths that comprise a valid routing. In contrast to most other routing schemes, the paths for different communication demands cannot be configured independent of each other. Part I of the thesis is dedicated to the relation between path sets and routing metrics and to the combinatorial properties of those path sets that comprise a valid unsplittable shortest path routing. Besides reviewing known approaches to find a compatible metric for a given path set (or to prove that none exists) and discussing some properties of valid path sets, we show that the problem of finding a compatible metric with integer lengths as small as possible and the problem of finding a smallest possible conflict in the given path set are both NP-hard to approximate within a constant factor. In Part II of the thesis we discuss the relation between unsplittable shortest path routing and several other routing schemes and we analyze the computational complexity of three basic unsplittable shortest path routing problems. We show that the lowest congestion that can be obtained with unsplittable shortest path routing may significantly exceed that achievable with other routing paradigms and we prove several non-approximability results for unsplittable shortest path routing problems that are stronger than those for the corresponding unsplittable flow problems. In addition, we derive various polynomial time approximation algorithms for general and special cases of these problems. In Part III of the thesis we finally develop an integer linear programming approach to solve these and more realistic unsplittable shortest path routing problems to optimality. We present alternative formulations for these problems, discuss their strength and computational complexity, and show how to derive strong valid inequalities. Eventually, we describe our implementation of this solution approach and report on the numerical results obtained for real-world problems that came up in the planning the German National Research and Education Networks G-WiN and X-WiN and for several benchmark instances.