Hints for searching

Boolean Operators AND, OR, NOT

When you use the Simple Search, all terms are combined by AND automatically. For a more tightly focused search you may use the Boolean Operators to combine different search terms.

AND: The document has to contain all search terms.

OR: The document has to contain one of the search terms. This function broadens your search and is recommended, when there are different terms for the same meaning.

article OR paper

NOT: This function works excluding and might be useful to reduce a large result list: Documents, which contain the one term, may not contain the other.

article NOT paper

The Boolean Operators work for the Advanced Search as well. You may use them to combine different search terms within one search field. For example, to search for documents of the author "Doe" in the years 2002 or 2003, use the query:

Author: Doe
Year: 2002 OR 2003


In the field 'Search:', you may use the symbols '*' and '?' as wildcards. Use them in place of a character or characters that are unknown or that may differ. You cannot use them in front of a word or search string.

Example 1: chemi* finds chemical but also chemistry or chemist. Example 2: licen?e finds licence and license.

You may use double quotes (") to search for phrases.

I have some more questions - whom shall I contact?
Which document types are recorded in OPUS?
Bachelor thesis
Book (monograph)
Master's thesis
Other publication
Scientific article / Aufsatz
How do I publish my work here?
Please click on the publication link on the start page.
First you are requested to choose a document type. Right beneath that you can upload your document files. Having done so you may click on "send". What follows now is the actual form. You have to fill in data about your publication here (so called metadata), which is used to describe your work in cataloges and other bibliographic directories. Describe the document you want to upload using the categories and fields on the publication form. Depending on the document type, some of these fields are mandatory and therefore have to be filled in. Please describe your document as clear as possible. Mandatory fields are for example:
  • the document type (must be choosen from a list)
  • the title of your publication and the language of the title
  • the abstract of the document
  • the publication date of your document (normally the day you publish it online)
  • the language of the document (must be choosen from a list)
  • the licence, under which you want to publish your document (must be choosen from a list)
If you are unsure what to fill in certain form fields, you can point the cursor on a field and an explaining help text will be shown.
After you have finished the form, all data will be displayed once again for a check-up and you then have three possibilities: you can correct them if necessary, add your document to a collection or simply safe it directly.

In oder to publish your work cookies have to be enabled in your web browser.
What happens after I have uploaded data?
The library staff will check this data and then activate it. If any details are missing or if you have any queries, you will receive a message.
What are the requirements for my document?
File formats:
Text documents: PDF, TXT, HTML, HTM
Graphic formats: BMP, JPG/JPEG, PNG, TIF/TIFF, GIF

File size: Files up to 250 MB are accepted for uploading, larger files should be divided.
What's metadata?
Metadata can be defined as
  • data describing one or more resources or as
  • data associated with an object and describing it
Basically metadata is describing documents, objects or services and contains information about their content, structure or form. More abstractly metadata is a description of data or "data about data". Bibliographic data sets and catalog entries in library catalogs can be seen as a kind of metadata.

This repository is using metadata in the Dublin Core Metadata Element Set (short Dublin Core (DC)) which has fifteen basic elements. Dublin Core is the result of international efforts to reach a collective consensus in describing electronic objects (in the broadest sense). The Library of Congress (LoC), the Online Cataloging Library Center (OCLC) and several national libraries are dealing with Dublin Core in many projects and are close to introduce the system respectively.

Can documents be changed or deleted?
In principle, it is not possible to change or delete documents. This guarantees the authenticity of the documents, which are therefore comparable with printed publications. In exceptional cases, the document can be blocked, but only access to the file is prevented. access to the file is blocked, but the author and title can still be searched. If you wish to make a correction and your document has already been published, the modified document must be re-entered. This corresponds to the process for a new edition of a printed publication.
In most cases this is no problem. Please ensure in any case, if your publisher allows a parallel publication! To do that you can use the SHERPA/ROMEO list.
As an author, you can determine which terms of use should apply to your work. Restrictions on commercial distribution can lead to restrictions on the visibility of the document. Search engines are also affected by this rule. Further information on the individual licenses can be found at:
This document server is based on the repository software OPUS4 OPUS is documented here:
The author grants the operator of the publication server the following rights of use: - the permanent right to electronic storage, in particular in databases - the simple perpetual right of use (Section 31 (2) UrhG) for making available to the public in international data networks in accordance with Section 19a UrhG - the permanent right to conversion for the purpose of long-term archiving or visualization, taking into account the preservation of the content (the original archiving remains intact) - the right to change and/or complete the metadata provided by the author or publisher if necessary - the right to make the metadata accessible and usable by anyone without restriction - the right to pass on the document and the associated metadata to the German National Library and other relevant subject or regional document servers with the same aforementioned rights The authors and publishers are solely responsible for the content of the documents. Hof University of Applied Sciences accepts no liability for the content of the publications provided and linked external sites. The author or publisher assures that the document does not violate legal regulations, official orders or other rights of third parties. The authors or publishers undertake to clarify any copyrights and exploitation rights of third parties that may be affected or to obtain their consent. If the author or publisher becomes aware of the existence or emergence of legal obstacles, they shall inform Hof University of Applied Sciences immediately. The authors' copyrights shall remain protected. Hof University of Applied Sciences is only granted a simple right of use. Publication on the Hof University of Applied Sciences publication server therefore does not prevent further publication of the documents in specialist journals or monographs or on other servers. In accordance with the recommendations of the German Council of Science and Humanities on the digital provision of information by university libraries, all academics at Hof University of Applied Sciences are advised to reserve the right to self-archive in the Hof University OPUS system when concluding publishing contracts and to additionally publish the documents they have written on the publication server - possibly after an embargo period. The metadata of the documents published on the publication server. The metadata of the documents published on the publication server may be accessed and stored by anyone via the OAI interface and - if necessary in enriched form or in selection - made available to third parties. Documents that have already been published will not be deleted from the server. Hof University of Applied Sciences is entitled to exclude published documents from publication if the rights of third parties have been infringed.
Verantwortlich für die Redaktion und die Pflege der Datenbank sowie die inhaltliche Fassung der Autorenseiten i.S.d. §55 Abs. 2 RStV:

Katharina Sachs
Tel. 09281/409-3411


Die Hochschule für Angewandte Wissenschaften Hof ist eine Körperschaft des öffentlichen Rechts und eine staatliche Einrichtung des Freistaats Bayern.

Alfons-Goppel-Platz 1 95028 Hof Fon: +49 (0) 9281 / 409 3000 Fax: +49 (0) 9281 / 409 4000


Authorized representative:

Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Jürgen Lehmann, Präsident Hochschule Hof

Competent supervisory authority:

Bayerisches Staatsministerium für Bildung und Kultus, Wissenschaft und Kunst Salvatorstraße 2 80333 München

Umsatzsteuer-Identifikationsnummer gem. §27a Umsatzsteuergesetz (UStG)

The Kooperativer Bibliotheksverbund (KOBV) is responsible for the hardware and software of this server.

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