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Die Studie fasst Ergebnisse einer Befragung von Konformitätsbewertungsstellen zu deren Lage und den Aussichten während der Corona-Pandemie zusammen. Besondere Schwerpunkte wurden auf die wirtschaftlichen Auswirkungen und die Arbeitsfähigkeit, aber auch auf die Resilienz und die Wirkungen auf die Digitalisierung gelegt.

The present study investigates the possibility of improving the selective oxidation of methane to formaldehyde over V-SBA-15 catalysts in two different ways. In a classical approach of catalyst optimization, the in situ synthesis of V-SBA-15 catalysts was optimized with regard to the applied pH value. Among the set of catalysts synthesized, a higher amount of incorporated vanadium, a higher content of polymeric VOx species as well as a less ordered structure of the support material were observed by increasing the pH values from 2.0 to 3.0. An optimum in performance during the selective oxidation of methane to formaldehyde with respect to activity and selectivity was found over V-SBA-15 prepared at a pH value of 2.5. With this knowledge, we have now evaluated the possibilities of reaction control using this catalyst. Specifically, artificial neural network modelling was applied after the collection of 232 training samples for obtaining insight into the influence of different reaction parameters (temperature; gas hourly space velocity (GHSV); and concentration of O2, N2 and H2O) onto methane conversion and selectivity towards formaldehyde.
This optimization of reaction conditions resulted in an outstanding high space-time yield of 13.6 kgCH2O∙kgcat∙h−1

To simulate the movement of the macroscopic magnetic moment in ferromagnetic systems under the influence of elevated temperatures, the stochastic version of the Landau-Lifshitz (LL) or the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation with a spin density of one per unit cell has to be used.
To apply the stochastic LL to micromagnetic simulations, where the spin density per unit cell is generally higher, a conversion has to be performed. OOMMF sample files MIF) are provided which can be used to determine the Curie temperature for the classical bulk magnets, iron, nickel and cobalt.

These files contain cell models for TOPAS/Geant4 and the inclusion of nano particles in particle scattering simulations. A simple spherical cell with nanoparticles can be generated in a fast manner. The user has the option to include the following organelles: nucleus, mitochondria, cell membrane. Additionally nanoparticles can be included in the cytosol and at the surface of the nucleus and/or the mitochondria.
The C++ classes in this repository extend the functionality of the TOPAS (http://www.topasmc.org/) Monte-Carlo program, which is itself a wrapper of the Geant4 MCS Toolkit (http://geant4.org). The sourcecode together with examples and scorers are provided.

As opposed to reviewing results on experimental determination of residual stress by diffraction, this paper discusses the open issues when dealing with residual stress determination in additive manufactured parts, in particular those manufactured with laser powder bed fusion techniques. Three points are addressed in detail: (a) the proper determination of the strain-free reference d0, (b) the problem of the determination of the principal axes, and (c) the use of the correct diffraction elastic constants. It is shown that all methods to determine the strain-free reference d0 suffer from caveats, and care must be taken in evaluating the most suitable for the problem being tackled. In addition, it is shown that, in some systems, the principal axes do correspond to the geometrical axes of the specimen, but this needs to be systematically checked, especially in the case of uni- or bidirectional hatching strategies. Finally, the need to experimentally determine the proper diffraction elastic constants is underlined, especially in the case of strongly textured specimens, which again depends on the deposition strategy.

Popioły pochodzące z instalacji do spalania komunalnych osadów ściekowych, znajdującej się na terytorium Polski, poddano procesom termochemicznego przekształcania, dzięki czemu otrzymano produkty nawozowe spełniające kryteria dopuszczające je do obrotu jako nawozy mineralne. Ponadto dokonano analizy możliwości wykorzystania popiołów na cele nawozowe zgodnie z obecnie przyjętymi dokumentami strategicznymi i planistycznymi dotyczącymi gospodarki odpadami na poziomie krajowym i europejskim.

The current practice of operating and maintaining deteriorating structural systems ensures acceptable levels of structural reliability, but it is not clear how efficient it is. Changing the current prescriptive approach to a risk-based approach has great potential to enable a more efficient management of such systems. Risk-based optimization of operation and maintenance strategies identifies the strategy that optimally balances the cost for controlling deterioration in a structural system with the achieved risk reduction. Inspections and monitoring are essential parts of operation and maintenance strategies. They are typically performed to reduce the uncertainty in the structural condition and inform decisions on future operation and maintenance actions. In risk-based optimization of operation and maintenance strategies, Bayesian updating is used to include information contained in inspection and monitoring data in the prediction of the structural reliability. All computations need to be repeated many times for different potential inspection and monitoring outcomes. This motivates the development of robust and efficient approaches to this computationally challenging task.
The reliability of deteriorating structural systems is time-variant because the loads on them and their capacities change with time. In most practical applications, the reliability analysis of deteriorating structural systems can be approached by dividing their lifetime into discrete time intervals. The time-variant reliability problem can then be represented by a series of time-invariant reliability problems. Using this methodology as a starting point, this thesis proposes a novel approach to compute the time-variant reliability of deteriorating structural systems for which inspection and monitoring data are available. The problem is formulated in a nested way in which the prediction of the structural condition is separated from the computation of the structural reliability conditional on the structural condition. Information on the structural condition provided by inspections and monitoring is included in the reliability assessment through Bayesian updating of the system deterioration model employed to predict the structural condition. The updated system reliability is obtained by coupling the updated deterioration model with a probabilistic structural model utilized to calculate the failure probability conditional on the structural condition. This approach is the first main outcome of this thesis and termed nested reliability analysis (NRA) approach. It is demonstrated in two numerical examples considering inspected and monitored steel structures subject to high-cycle fatigue.
An alternative – recently developed – approach, which also follows the strategy of discretizing time, describes deteriorating structural systems with hierarchical dynamic Bayesian networks (DBN). DBN combined with approximate or exact inference algorithms also enable the computation of the time-variant reliability of deteriorating structural systems conditional on information provided by inspection and monitoring data. In this thesis – as a proof of concept – a software prototype is developed based on the DBN approach, which can be used to assess the reliability of a corroding concrete box girder for which half-cell potential measurements are available. This is the second main outcome of this thesis.
Both approaches presented in this thesis enable an integral reliability analysis of inspected and monitored structures that accounts for system effects arising from (a) the correlation among deterioration states of different structural elements, (b) the interaction between element deterioration and system failure, and (c) the indirect information gained on the condition of all unobserved structural elements from inspecting or monitoring the condition of some structural elements. Thus, both approaches enable a systemwide risk-based optimization of operation and maintenance strategies for deteriorating structural systems.
The NRA approach can be implemented relatively easily with subset simulation, which is a sequential Monte Carlo method suitable for estimating rare event probabilities. Subset simulation is robust and considerably more efficient than crude Monte Carlo simulation. It is, however, still sampling-based and its efficiency is thus a function of the number of inspection and monitoring outcomes, as well as the value of the simulated event probabilities. The current implementation of the NRA approach performs separate subset simulation runs to estimate the reliability at different points in time. The efficiency of the NRA approach with subset simulation can be significantly improved by exploiting the fact that failure events in different years are nested. The lifetime reliability of deteriorating structural systems can thus be computed in reverse chronological order in a single subset simulation run.
The implementation of the DBN approach is much more demanding than the implementation of the NRA approach but it has two main advantages. Firstly, the graphical format of the DBN facilitates the presentation of the model and the underlying assumptions to stakeholders who are not experts in reliability analysis. Secondly, it can be combined with exact inference algorithms. In this case, its efficiency neither depends on the number of inspection and monitoring outcomes, nor on the value of the event probabilities to be calculated. However, in contrast to the NRA approach with subset simulation, the DBN approach with exact inference imposes restrictions on the number of random variables and the dependence structure that can be implemented in the model.

Das Ziel der Initiative QI-FoKuS ist es, eine Datenbasis für neue wissenschaftliche Erkenntnisse zu Einflussfaktoren und Effekten in der Konformitätsbewertung und Akkreditierung zu schaffen. Ende 2019 wurden in einer ersten Online-Erhebung Unternehmen verschiedener Branchen und Größenklassen in Deutschland zur Nutzung von Managementsystemen und ihren Wirkungen befragt. Diese umfasste weit verbreitete genormte Managementsysteme wie ISO 9001 und ISO 14001 genauso wie bisher wenig untersuchte Systeme wie die ISO 50001 oder ISO/IEC 27001. Es konnten 180 Fragebögen für die vorliegende Studie ausgewertet werden.

Nuclear Power Plants have been in operation for ca. 50 years. Based on this experience, non-destructive testing tasks specific to thick and highly reinforced nuclear containment structures have materialized. The performance based Service life extension of existing NPPs also needs a measurement based decision to support continuing the service of the concrete part of the installations.
By nature, concrete is a very durable material and any natural Deterioration processes may take a long time to become critical to the structure. The experience of more than 50 years of service limits the testing tasks to a few ones which are not yet solved.
Research in NDT of concrete structures is performed by many research institutions all over the world with different technical and systematic approaches. Results are mainly obtained on laboratory specimens, sometimes additional field studies are reported. This research takes place independently without coordination and as a result, the outcomes mostly lack full comparability.
Software for data analysis has become indispensable and very powerful. This part of testing needs more attention when it comes to evaluate test results. Validation of NDE solutions is becoming a critical part in concrete structure testing.
Validation is by definition the proof that a customer´s requirements in the test are being met by the testing solution. This includes equipment, personnel qualification and data analysis. In the following tables, the research recommendation Validation is used in the sense, that proof of the performance of existing solutions needs to be adressed. In general, a validation methodology for NDE solutions for concrete testing in itself needs to be researched and established.
Comparability of research also needs an accepted and easily accessible reference. From experience, it is almost impossible to manufacture exact copies of test specimens at different locations. Round Robin tests are therefore needed to evaluate the performance of a test.
Data evaluation is generally done using dedicated software, sometimes Hardware dependant and not interchangeable between systems. Software is ever more increasingly becoming more powerful and sophisticated. An in-depth evaluation needs to address the comparability and validation of Software used for data analysis and evaluation. The vision of a unified software pool for NDE investigations would undoubtedly support research tremendously.
Quantitative NDE is mostly recommended to assess the condition of a structure. However, qualitative data can be very useful, especially for processes which change the material properties or deteriorate the structure (e.g. corrosion of reinforcement). The need for reliable baseline data is a key factor for such monitoring tasks.