## 7.2 Ingenieurbau

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#### Dokumenttyp

- Vortrag (143)
- Beitrag zu einem Tagungsband (85)
- Zeitschriftenartikel (62)
- Posterpräsentation (16)
- Buchkapitel (8)
- Dissertation (4)
- Beitrag zu einem Sammelband (2)
- Tagungsband (Herausgeberschaft für den kompletten Band) (1)
- Sonstiges (1)

#### Schlagworte

- Fatigue (21)
- Ground vibration (17)
- Monitoring (11)
- Finite element method (10)
- Slab track (10)
- Structural health monitoring (10)
- Offshore wind energy (9)
- Structural Health Monitoring (9)
- Damage characterization (8)
- Impact (8)

#### Organisationseinheit der BAM

- 7.2 Ingenieurbau (322)
- 7 Bauwerkssicherheit (321)
- 7.4 Baustofftechnologie (23)
- 8 Zerstörungsfreie Prüfung (15)
- 7.1 Baustoffe (13)
- 8.3 Radiologische Verfahren (10)
- 7.0 Abteilungsleitung und andere (7)
- 8.1 Sensorik, mess- und prüftechnische Verfahren (3)
- 3 Gefahrgutumschließungen (2)
- 3.3 Sicherheit von Transportbehältern (2)

This document presents the specification for the execution and evaluation of high-speed tensile tests on reinforcement bar coupler systems. This specification was developed at BAM - Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Germany) - following test principles from related international standards.
The present document represents the latest status of the test specification. It is noted that until 2010 the test procedure was characterised on a test velocity based on L0. In an improved test conception and after intensive investigations in cooperation with industry partners, this procedure has been updated to consider instead a test velocity based on Lr, since this warrants more comparable and meaningful results.

Fault detection for linear parameter varying systems under changes in the process noise covariance
(2020)

Detecting changes in the eigenstructure of linear systems is a comprehensively investigated subject. In particular, change detection methods based on hypothesis testing using Gaussian residuals have been developed previously. In such residuals, a reference model is confronted to data from the current system. In this paper, linear output-only systems depending on a varying external physical parameter are considered. These systems are driven by process noise, whose covariance may also vary between measurements. To deal with the varying parameter, an interpolation approach is pursued, where a limited number of reference models – each estimated from data measured in a reference state – are interpolated to approximate an adequate reference model for the current parameter. The problem becomes more complex when the different points of interpolation correspond to different noise conditions. Then conflicts may arise between the detection of changes in the eigenstructure due to a fault and the detection of changes due to different noise conditions. For this case, a new change detection approach is developed based on the interpolation of the eigenstructure at the reference points. The resulting approach is capable of change detection when both the external physical parameter and the process noise conditions are varying. This approach is validated on a numerical simulation of a mechanical system.

Fault detection for linear parameter varying systems under changes in the process noise covariance
(2020)

Detecting changes in the eigenstructure of linear systems is a comprehensively investigated subject. In particular, change detection methods based on hypothesis testing using Gaussian residuals have been developed previously. In such residuals, a reference model is confronted to data from the current system. In this paper, linear output-only Systems depending on a varying external physical parameter are considered. These systems are driven by process noise, whose covariance may also vary between measurements. To deal with the varying parameter, an interpolation approach is pursued, where a limited number of reference models { each estimated from data measured in a reference state { are interpolated to approximate an adequate reference model for the current parameter. The problem becomes more complex when the different points of interpolation correspond to different noise conditions. Then con icts May arise between the detection of changes in the eigenstructure due to a fault and the detection of changes due to different noise conditions. For this case, a new change detection approach is developed based on the interpolation of the eigenstructure at the reference points. The resulting approach is capable of change detection when both the external physical parameter and the process noise conditions are varying. This approach is validated on a numerical simulation of a mechanical system.

his presentation deals with the phenomenology and design of pile foundations for offshore wind turbines, and is divided into two lectures.
The second lecture continues with the case of laterally loaded offshore piles, which bears most relevance for the case of the monopile foundations. Here again, a clear separation between physical reality and design methods is intended.
Finally, the last part of the second lecture introduces several advanced topics which lie outside the classical design approaches, namely the hydromechanical coupling effects (i.e. the excess pore-pressure generation around the monopiles), the cyclic pile fatigue and the so-called pile setup (i.e. the time effects on the axial pile capacity). The relevance of the latter two topics is illustrated with experimental results from a field testing campaign on real large-scale piles.

This presentation deals with the phenomenology and design of pile foundations for offshore wind turbines, and is divided into two lectures.
The first lecture presents a brief introduction to the context and peculiarities of such foundations, and then focuses on the particular case of axially loaded piles. This part is most relevant for the relatively slender piles of the multi-pile substructures (i.e. jackets and tripods). A clear distinction between physical phenomenology and practical design is drawn here.

The dynamic behaviour of slab and ballast tracks has been investigated by measurements and calculations. Hammer impacts and train passages have been analysed. Measurements have been performed by geophones (velocity transducers) which have been time-integrated to displacements. The calculations are done in frequency-wavenumber domain for multi-beam-on-continuous soil models. The characteristics of the different tracks and track elements have been established in theory and experiment. The frequency-dependent compliances (displacement transfer functions) show clear rail-on-rail-pad resonances or highly damped track-soil resonances. Compared to the rail and sleeper, the track plate has much lower amplitudes. The slab track has usually the highest rail amplitudes due to soft rail pads. The train passage yields track displacements which are a superposition of the axle loads from the two neighbouring axles of a bogie and from the two bogies of two neighbouring carriages. This global behaviour is characteristic for the track plate of the slab track whereas the rails of the slab and the ballast track behave more local with only one bogie of influence. The measurements agree very well with the theory of the continuous soil in case of the six measured slab tracks and acceptably well for the six measured ballast tracks. The measurements allow to find appropriate model parameters and to check the models, for example the Winkler model of the soil has been found less appropriate as it reacts more locally.

Grouted connections are intensively used in offshore rigs, platforms as well as jacket and monopile offshore wind turbine structures. Being located in remote offshore conditions, these connections can experience considerable adverse loading during their lifetimes. Degradation was reported inside similar connections, which were installed in the last three decades. Grouting in the offshore sites may often be proven difficult, which eventually leads to reduced load-bearing capacity of connections in the long run. Thus, repair and rehabilitation of such connections should be planned ahead to minimize operational delays and costs. In this study, scaled grouted connections were manufactured using a novel mould, whose integrity were monitored using digital image correlation (DIC). The connections were loaded under static load to visualize the main failure pattern using distributed fibre optic sensors and acoustic emission (AE) analysis. Grouted connections were then repaired using a cementitious injectable grout. The effectiveness of the grout injection was monitored using dye penetration technique. Finally, specimens are reloaded to identify the potential of such repair for grouted connections.

Design challenges for Offshore wind-farms. From foundation mechanics to wind-farm aerodynamics
(2021)

This talk provides a brief introduction on general engineering design challenges for the offshore wind energy production. Some general features of the offshore wind-energy field from a civil engineering perspective are firstly presented, followed by a brief discussion of some of the main geomechanical issues for the foundation of the offshore turbines into the seabed.
In the following part, an overview of relevant fluid-structure interactions and some options for an efficient numerical analysis are provided, where the hydromechanical Wave–Tower interaction is firstly discussed. Then, some general aspects of the windfarm aerodynamics are introduced. On the one hand, some modelling possibilities for the wake analysis of single turbines and turbine groups are discussed. And on the other hand the relevance of such analyses for a proper windfarm layout optimization is pointed out.
In particular, this talk shows that: i) The bearing capacity of turbine multi-pile foundations can degrade under cyclic loading (waves, wind, …), while for monopile foundations cyclic hydromechanical coupling effects may take place, which may lead to a foundation softening; ii) Numerical analysis of a turbine’s interaction with wind/waves is useful and affordable, while simplified models can already provide a useful insight into the windfarm aerodynamics. iii) Turbulent wake analysis is very relevant for the windfarm layout.

Many measurements of train induced ground vibrations show high amplitudes for a certain mid-frequency range. This ground vibration component cannot be well explained by dynamic loads of the train. Many characteristics indicate that the axle impulses, which are scattered by an irregular soil, are the excitation. This new understanding of railway-induced ground vibration is verified by numerical analysis. The response of the regular homogeneous and irregular inhomogeneous soils has been calculated by the finite-element method in frequency domain. A specific superposition of the impulse responses has been invented including time shift, axle sequence, track filter and hanning filter. The superposition yields the quasi-static component of the ground vibration which is restricted to very low frequencies and to the close near-field of the track. In case of an irregular soil of which the stiffness varies randomly in space, the superposition yields a mid-frequency ground vibration component from the scattering of the axle impulses. The existence and the importance of this component can thus be demonstrated by the calculations. Some rules of the influence of distance, train speed, soil stiffness, strength and width of the stiffness variation have been derived from the calculations. Many measurements show the unique explanation of the mid-frequency ground vibration component by the scattered axle impulses.

We present here a set of conceptual and numerical tools for a micromechanical simulation of general erosion problems involving fluid-saturated granular assemblies, whether frictional or cohesive. We propose a parallel computation using graphical processing units (GPUs) to treat large numbers of degrees of freedom with conventional desktop computers.
The fluid phase is here simulated with a particle-resolved approach in the frame of the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) while the granular solid phase is modelled as a collection of discrete particles from a Molecular Dynamics DEM perspective. The range of possible material behaviors for the solid granular phase is intended here to cover a broad spectrum from purely frictional to viscous cohesive materials with either brittle or transient debonding features. Specific details of the implementation and some validation cases will be put forward.
To conclude we provide some exemplary applications in the field of soil erosion along with details on the parallel performance of the models. The results show that a micromechanical approach can be feasible and useful in practice, providing meaningful insights into complex phenomena like the erosion threshold and kinetics of weakly cemented soils.

A study on building vibrations has been performed by finite element calculations. Family houses, multi-storey residential buildings, office buildings and office towers have been modelled in detail. The frequency-dependent response due to a free-field excitation has been evaluated for walls, columns and floors. The ratio of building amplitudes to free-field amplitudes starts with uB/u0 = 1 at zero frequency and is usually lower than 1 at 50 Hz, the end of the frequency range considered here. In between, amplifications occur due to several reasons. There are „soil resonances“ where the whole building is vibrating on the compliant soil, “column resonances” where the upper storeys are vibrating on the compliant columns, and the “floor resonances” where the floors are vibrating excited by their supports. Results are presented for all building types, but a special focus is set on office buildings. A parameter study shows the influence of the stiffness of the soil, the number of storeys, and the width of the building. It has been found that the “soil resonance” is strongly modified by the low-frequency floor resonances for the normal office building. The main resonance of a twenty-storey office tower is determined equally by the “soil mode” and the “column mode”. It is an important observation for these office buildings that the resonances can differ for different parts of the building such as the centre, the edge, the corner, and the core of the building. This leads to non-uniform vibration modes across the building, which look like another type of “floor resonance” and which have been observed in several real building projects. Experimental results will be shown which can confirm the calculated phenomena.

Prediction of dynamic effects of reinforced concrete structures under impact loading is a technical challenge. This is a consequence of the great variability of the physical properties resulting from the wide adaptability of reinforced concrete and a consequence of the wide range of impact loading. Experiments and numerical investigations are normally used on a small scale to address the problem. In this paper, impact tests on reinforced conrete plates with the lateral dimensions of 1.5 m x 1.5 m and a thickness of 30 cm are presented. In bending reinforcement, besides the velocity two properties are varied, the diameter and the spatial distribution of the rebars. Experiments are performed at the Otto-Mohr-Laboratory of the Institute of Concrete Structures of the Technische Universit¨at Dresden. Due to the accelerated fall of the impactor the velocity ranges between 20 and 70 m/s. In addition to the measured quantities such as bearing forces, accelerations are also measured at 4 different positions on and under the plate, as well as the deflection at several positions. The measured data are used for the analysis of the damage form and the numerical examinations with the program Ansys Autodyn and the material model after Drucker-Prager.
Numerical investigations support the tests, with detailed analysis of individual effects. These numerical computations and the planar tomographic investigations were carried out at BAM in Berlin. With the help of planar tomographic evaluation, the damaged structure is
made visible and compared with the numerical results. Influences of the bending reinforcement are explained on the basis of damage evaluation in the local area and on selected measured values. In addition to the test evaluation, the tomographic and numerical methods are presented.

At the Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM) full scale specimens for nuclear transport and storage containers (casks) are tested for their structural integrity in a series of drop tests on the Test Site Technical Safety in Horstwalde, 50 km south of Berlin. These drop tests cause a major stress not only on the casks, but also on the steel tower structure of the test facility, itself. The load pattern makes the structure very interesting for detailed investigation. The focus of the monitoring lies on the bolted joints of the flange connections that are a typical connection for cylindrical elements if welding is technical or economical unfavorable. The definition of the monitoring takes was done by investigating the existing documents and inspection results accompanied by building an initial digital representation of the structure, consisting of two finite element (FE) models and a geometrical 3D point cloud representation. As a first step the structures behavior during static and dynamic loading was analyzed using measurement data and an updated numerical FE Model. The idea behind is to use models for a digital planning and operation/evaluation of the structural health monitoring. A static FE simulation and a dynamic FE simulation are generated, to investigate how the structure behaves under the load conditions.

Inspection and maintenance contribute significantly to the lifetime cost of bridges. There is significant potential in using information obtained through structural health monitoring to update predictive models of the condition and performance of such structures, and thus ena-ble an improved decision-making regarding inspection and maintenance activities. Within the AISTEC project funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, we develop vibration-based structural health monitoring systems aimed at continuously provid-ing information on the structural condition of bridges. Environmental variations such as changing ambient temperatures can significantly influence the dynamic characteristics of bridges and thus mask the effect of structural changes and damages. It remains a challenge to account for such influences in structural health monitoring. To study the effect of ambient temperatures on the dynamic characteristics of beam structures, we monitor the vibration response of a reinforced concrete beam in the uncracked and cracked state at varying tem-peratures in a climate chamber. We postulate a set of competing parameterized probabilistic structural models, which explicitly account for the effect of varying ambient temperatures on the mechanical properties of the system. We then combine the information provided by the structural models with the information contained in the recorded vibration data to learn the parameters of the temperature-dependent structural models and infer the plausible state of the beam using Bayesian system identification and model class selection.

State of the art and development perspectives of deep foundations for offshore wind converters
(2020)

This presentation provides an overview of the main geotechnical aspects associated with deep foundations in the context of offshore wind generation. The most common deep foundation typologies (large diameter monopiles and multipile typologies) as well as new trends under development (e.g. suction buckets) and their current limits will be briefly described. The talk concludes with a brief review of advanced topics not covered in classical pile design, such as hydromechanical coupling effects (pore pressure generation), cyclic accumulation of deformations, cyclic degradation of axial capacity or pile-setup gains.