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- Cycle jump (3)
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- Fatigue (2)
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Accurate models for the long term behavior of concrete structures are important to ensure a durable and reliable design.
A variety of interacting phenomena, such as the loss of prestress, the degradation due to chemical reactions or creep and shrinkage, influence the fatigue resistance. Therefore, a reliable numerical model to predict the performance of concrete over its lifetime is required.
The presented fatigue model is an extension of a static damage model to allow easy coupling in a multiphysics context. The evolution equation of the damage driving variable is enhanced to allow damage growth below the static limit. The model is defined in the time domain and does not include the number of cycles as a parameter.
Thus, it can capture both static and cyclic failure.
Additionally, this allows calibrating the majority of the model parameters static experiments. The model is integrated by resolving each loading cycle, requiring about ten time steps per cycle. The high computational costs are handled via a time scale separation.
The short time scale describes one cycle with marginal changes in the internal variables. These changes are integrated along the large time scale of material deterioration. Various high-order time integration schemes are compared.
Wöhler curves relate loading amplitudes to the number of cycles that the material endures. They are used to validate the model against experimental data.

Simulating high-cycle fatigue with continuum models offers the possibility to model stress-redistributions, consider 3Dstress states and simplifies extensions to multi-physics problems. The computational cost of conventional cycle-by-cycle time integrations is reduced by reformulating the fatigue problem as an ordinary differential equation for the material state and solving it with high-order adaptive time integration schemes. The computational cost of calculating the Change of the material state in one cycle is further reduced by a high-order fatigue-specific time integration. The approach is exemplarily demonstrated for a fatigue extension of the implicit gradient-enhanced damage model in 3D and compared to experimental Wöhler lines.

Damage caused by stress concentrations in the complex mesoscopic geometry of concrete leads to continuous stress redistribution over the material's life time. The presented fatigue damage model captures this by resolving each load cycle in a cycle-by-cycle time integration. The model extends a static damage model to failure caused by the (time dependent) strain amplitudes and, thus, allows calibrating the majority of the material's parameters in static experiments.

The problem of polydisperse sphere packings is applied to concrete mesoscale geometries in finite sized specimens. Realistic sphere diameter distributions are derived from concrete grading curves. An event-driven molecular dynamics simulation using growing particles is introduced. Compared to the widely used random sequential addition algorithm, it reaches denser aggregate packings and saves computation time at high volume fractions.
A minimal distance between particles strongly influences the maximum aggregate content. It is essential to obtain undistorted elements when meshing the geometry for finite element simulations. The algorithm maximizes this value and produces meshable concrete mesostructures with more than 70% aggregate content.

Isotropic damage models are widely used for the finite element simulation of softening materials, e.g. in mesoscale simulations of concrete. Regularization techniques must be employed to obtain a physically meaningful fracture energy upon mesh refinement.
In regularized local damage models the strains localize in single elements allowing them to represent weak or strong discontinuities. In implicit integration schemes, these models can exhibit convergence Problems caused by an ill-conditioned tangent stiffness. This corresponds to the loss of ellipticity of the local rate equilibrium equations.
Oliver et al. developed the implicit/explicit (IMPL-EX) integration scheme which overcomes These problems in local damage models. The internal damage driving variable is extrapolated based on previous implicitly determined values. This provides two main benefits: First, it always results in a symmetric positive semi-definite algorithmic stiffness matrix which precludes ill-posedness. Second, the system becomes incrementally linear and converges in one Newton-Raphson iteration. Even though the IMPL-EX algorithm, like explicit algorithms in general, requires smaller time steps than implicit schemes to obtain the same accuracy, it leads to a computational speedup.
The gradient enhanced damage model by Peerlings is a nonlocal damage model that provides the regularization by limiting the curvature of the damage-driving strains. These models do not lose their ellipticity. However, structural instabilities often require tiny time steps and many iterations to obtain convergence. Here, the second aspect of the IMPL-EX scheme reduces the computational costs. This is shown in simulations of the complex geometry of concrete mesostructures, where only the gradient enhanced matrix material and linear elastic aggregates are considered.
With regard to future mesoscale simulations, the remaining component of the mesoscopic structure, the interfacial transition zone and its degradation, has to be included. This adds a local damage model to the nonlocal problem. Thus, an IMPL-EX implementation has to be provided for both models to benefit from the increase of robustness and performance.

Quasi-brittle materials exhibit strain softening. Their modeling requires regularized constitutive formulations to avoid instabilities on the material level. A commonly used model is the implicit gradient-enhanced damage model. For complex geometries, it still Shows structural instabilities when integrated with classical backward Euler schemes. An alternative is the implicit–explicit (IMPL-EX) Integration scheme. It consists of the extrapolation of internal variables followed by an implicit calculation of the solution fields. The solution procedure for the nonlinear gradient-enhanced damage model is thus transformed into a sequence of problems that are algorithmically linear in every time step. Therefore, they require one single Newton–Raphson iteration per time step to converge. This provides both additional robustness and computational acceleration. The introduced extrapolation error is controlled by adaptive time-stepping schemes. This paper introduced and assessed two novel classes of error control schemes that provide further Performance improvements. In a three-dimensional compression test for a mesoscale model of concrete, the presented scheme was about 40 times faster than an adaptive backward Euler time integration.

Fatigue models that accurately resolve the complex three-dimensional failure mechanisms of concrete are numerically expensive. Especially the calibration of fatigue parameters to existing Wöhler lines requires solving for thousands or millions of cycles and a naive cycle-by-cycle integration is not feasible.
The proposed adaptive cycle jump methods provide a remedy to this challenge.
They greatly reduce the numerical effort of fatigue simulations and provide the basis for a development of those models.

One of the main challenges regarding our civil infrastructure is the efficient operation over their complete design lifetime while complying with standards and safety regulations. Thus, costs for maintenance or replacements must be optimized while still ensuring specified safety levels. This requires an accurate estimate of the current state as well as a prognosis for the remaining useful life. Currently, this is often done by regular manual or visual inspections within constant intervals. However, the critical sections are often not directly accessible or impossible to be instrumented at all. Model‐based approaches can be used where a digital twin of the structure is set up. For these approaches, a key challenge is the calibration and validation of the numerical model based on uncertain measurement data. The aim of this contribution is to increase the efficiency of model updating by using the advantage of model reduction (Proper Generalized Decomposition, PGD) and applying the derived method for efficient model identification of a random stiffness field of a real bridge.”

A key limitation of the most constitutive models that reproduce a Degradation of quasi-brittle materials is that they generally do not address issues related to fatigue. One reason is the huge computational costs to resolve each load cycle on the structural level. The goal of this paper is the development of a temporal Integration scheme, which significantly increases the computational efficiency of the finite element method in comparison to conventional temporal integrations.
The essential constituent of the fatigue model is an implicit gradient-enhanced formulation of the damage rate. The evolution of the field variables is computed as amultiscale Fourier series in time.On a microchronological scale attributed to single cycles, the initial boundary value problem is approximated by linear BVPs with respect to the Fourier coefficients. Using the adaptive cycle jump concept, the obtained damage rates are transferred to a coarsermacrochronological scale associated with the duration of material deterioration. The performance of the developedmethod is hence improved due to an efficient numerical treatment of the microchronological problem in combination with the cycle jump technique on the macrochronological scale. Validation examples demonstrate the convergence of the obtained solutions to the reference simulations while significantly reducing the computational costs.