An Analysis of the Protagonist’s Two Freedoms in >A Clockwork Orange< from the Perspective of Freedom Theory of Fromm [从弗洛姆的自由理论视角解读《发条橙》主人公的两种自由], English Language and Literature, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian, Liaoning China 2020 [application of Fromm's theories to art].

  • 发条橙》是英国作家安东尼·伯吉斯的代表作。这本小说被评为>20世纪最值得阅读的100本小说<之一,并且使安东尼·伯吉斯名声大噪。《发条橙》讲述了一个生活在未来英国社会的问题少年,由于青春期躁动走上消极自由道路,并受到政府的改造,重新融入社会期间,他自我意识逐渐觉醒,选择通过爱和劳动两种方式来追寻积极自由的故事。本篇论文应用弗洛姆的自由理论解读《发条橙》,探讨了以下两个问题。首先是消极自由如何在《发条橙》的主人公身上有所体现得;其次是在被改造后,主人公又是如何追寻积极自由的。这篇论文以对安东尼·伯吉斯及他的《发条橙》的介绍和对《发条橙》国内外学术研究成果作为论文开端,以对弗洛姆的自由理论的研究为理论框架,深度挖掘了《发条橙》中的造成主人公追求消极自由的因素。弗洛姆认为当人脱离原始纽带,并开始个体化进程后便会感到孤独和无助,为了躲避这些令人不安的感觉,现代人踏上了消极自由之路。消极自由有三种机制,一是权威主义,二是破坏欲,三是异化。而后弗洛姆又提出,现代人如何才能获得真正的自由?针对这一问题,弗洛姆认为只有人们的自我意识苏醒,并且通过自发性活动比如爱和劳动才能获得积极自由,即真正的自由。《发条橙》中主人公因种种原因,不得不踏上消极自由之路,在经过改造后,随着他自我意识的苏醒,他开始顿悟,于是,他又不顾一切地踏上了寻求积极自由的道路。本文运用弗洛姆的自由理论来解读《发条橙》,旨在阐述原本处于消极自由中的主人公,在经历种种后终于醒悟了只有积极自由才能给他带来真正的自我和归属感。这启发我们消极自由只能给人们带来表面的享受和快乐,实际上则是无尽的空虚与无助,只有积极自由才能带给人们幸福。同时,亦希望本文能引发更多人们对当下社会消极自由的关注和思考。
  • >A Clockwork Orange< is a masterpiece of Anthony Burgess. It is named one of the >100 most readable novels of the 20th century< and makes Anthony Burgess well-known. It tells a story about a troubled teenager who lives in the future society of England. Because of his restlessness in adolescence, he embarks on the road of negative freedom, and then he is punished by the society. After reforming, he reintegrates into the society, and his self-consciousness gradually awakens, then he pursues positive freedom through love and labor. This paper applies Fromm’s freedom theories to interpret >A Clockwork Orange< and discusses the following two problems. First of all, it is about how the negative freedom is reflected in the protagonist; secondly, after being transformed, how the protagonist pursues the positive freedom. This paper starts with the introduction of Anthony Burgess and >A Clockwork Orange< and the academic studies at home and abroad about >A Clockwork Orange<. It takes the research of freedom theories of Fromm as the theoretical framework, and deeply explores the factors that cause the protagonists to pursue negative freedom. According to Fromm, when people break away from the primary bonds, they will feel isolated and powerless. In order to avoid these disturbing feelings, modern people have embarked on the road to escape freedom, which is the negative freedom we have mentioned above. There are three mechanisms of negative freedom: authoritarianism, destructiveness and alienation. Then Fromm proposes that how modern people can obtain real freedom. He asserts that only when people’s self-consciousness woken up, and through spontaneous activities such as love and labor, can they obtain positive freedom, that is, real freedom. However, for various reasons, the protagonist in >A Clockwork Orange< has to step on the road of negative freedom. After being transformed, with the awakening of his self-consciousness, he begins to seek positive freedom. This paper uses Fromm’s freedom theories to interpret >A Clockwork Orange<, aiming to explain the protagonist who is recklessly pursing negative freedom finally awakens. He realizes that only positive freedom can bring him genuine self and belonging. This inspires us to understand that negative freedom can only bring people superficial enjoyment. Only positive freedom can bring people happiness. At the same time, I hope this paper can arouse more people’s concerns about the negative freedom of the contemporary society. [Author's translation]

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Author:Ruohan Zhang
Document Type:Dissertations
Year of first Publication:2020
Release Date:2022/05/04
Format:no download and copy possible
Writings about Erich Fromm (Secondary Literature):Dissertations / Dissertationen
Erich Fromm's Library and Erich Fromm Archive:Dissertations / Dissertationen
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