A Study about the Critical Theory of Consumer Culture in the Early Frankfurt School [早期法兰克福学派消费文化批判理论研究], Master thesis, Marxist Philosophy, Hebei University, Baoding, Hebei, China 2020.

  • 早期法兰克福学派是西方马克思主义流派中的一个极其重要的学派,消费文化批判理论是该学派文化批判理论的重要组成部分。早期法兰克福学派消费文化批判理论是在霍克海默、阿多诺、马尔库塞和弗洛姆等主要代表立足历史传统和现实情况,采取多学科交叉融合的研究方法的基础上逐渐形成的。早期法兰克福学派是一个由众多具有不同个性的理论家组成的研究团体,但贯穿其中的通过理论的批判来对抗资本主义统治的学术主旨始终没有改变。霍克海默和阿多诺认为启蒙理性虽然反对了神话但却使自身走向了“神话”,当启蒙理性渗透到文化生产中时,形成了一种文化工业,在这种文化工业下,人们的消费是单一的、盲目的,消费成为统治阶层蒙蔽和欺骗大众的手段,人的个性、主体性甚至连人的情感全都在这种文化工业下丧失殆尽;马尔库塞则认为,发达工业社会中的消费是一种异化消费,对技术理性的批判是关于消费问题分析的理论基础,压抑性的心理机制是消费问题产生的内在机理,人的单向度的生存方式是异化消费的突出表现,这样的社会是单向度的消费社会;弗洛姆则注重对个体的心理与性格结构生成过程的分析,认为异化已经泛化到人类生活的各个方面,使得本应是实现人幸福的消费如今却成为人自身的目的,人外在表现为贪婪的消费机器,内心深处实则为一种异化的文化模式。早期法兰克福学派消费文化批判理论是深刻的,但也并非是放之四海而皆准的。他们的消费文化批判理论虽是一种多维视角的、贴近现实的、怀有人文关怀的文化批判,但由于该学派主要理论家极力推崇精英文化,过度贬低人自身的独立性,采取了浪漫主义的全盘否定的立场,使得该学派理论是一种片面的理性批判,提出拯救消费的方案存在脱离现实之嫌。
  • The Early Frankfurt School is one of the most important schools of Western Marxism, and the critical theory of consumer culture was an important part of the critical theory of the school’s culture. The early Frankfurt School’s critical theory of consumer culture was gradually formed on the basis of Horkheimer, Adorno, Marcuse and Fromm, which were based on the historical tradition and reality, and adopting the research method of interdisciplinary integration. The early Frankfurt school was a research group composed of many theorists with different personalities, but the academic theme of opposing capitalist rule through the criticism of theory remained unchanged. Horkheimer and Adorno thought that although Enlightenment rationality opposes myth, it leads itself to >myth<. When Enlightenment rationality penetrates into cultural production, it forms a cultural industry. In this cultural industry, people’s consumption is single and blind, consumption becomes the means of the ruling class to deceive and deceive the public. People’s personality, subjectivity and even human emotions are all lost in this kind of cultural industry.– Marcuse believes that consumption is a kind of alienated consumption in the developed industrial society, and the repressed psychological mechanism is the internal mechanism of the consumption problem, the depressive psychological mechanism is the internal mechanism of consumption problems, and the one-way living mode of human is the prominent manifestation of the alienated consumption. Such a society is a one-way consumption society.– Fromm pays attention to the analysis of the individual’s psychological and character structure generation process, thinks that alienation has been generalized to all aspects of human life, the consumption has now become the purpose of human itself which should be to achieve human happiness. The external performance of human beings is greedy consumption machine, while the deep inside is actually an alienated cultural mode. The early Frankfurt School’s critical theory of consumer culture is profound, but it is not universal. Their consumption culture critical theory is not only a kind of multidimensional view, close to reality, with the cultural critique of humanistic concern, but because the main theorists of this school highly promote elite culture, excessive devaluing their independence, adopted romanticism totally negative position, this school theory is a kind of one-sided rational criticism, put forward to save consumption solution existence reality. [Author's translation]

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Author:Xing-guang Yuan
Document Type:Dissertations
Year of first Publication:2020
Release Date:2022/05/04
Format:no download and copy possible
Writings about Erich Fromm (Secondary Literature):Dissertations / Dissertationen
Erich Fromm's Library and Erich Fromm Archive:Dissertations / Dissertationen
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