Escape from Freedom: >Dangling Man< and the Reconciliation with the Society [逃避自由:《晃来晃去的人》与社会的和解], Master thesis, English Language and Literature Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China 2020 [application of Fromm's theories to art].

  • 贝娄作为现代人文主义的发言人,不断在创作中提倡回归浪漫主义时期对人性及心灵的重视。作为一个兼具犹太背景和美国生活经验的作家,贝娄的作品跳脱出了现代文学的主流圈,致力于拯救现代人于困惑和无助之笼。本文认为贝娄与同时代作家不同点为:他在讽刺现代社会的败落之余,将现代人内心的追寻与挣扎刻画得淋漓尽致,且在字里行间暗示美好生活的可能性,引导心灵流浪者回归社会。本文选取其处女作《晃来晃去的人》,并借此作品展示第一代贝娄式英雄约瑟夫的寻找自由之旅:从封锁自己,疏离他人到在追寻自我中多次与他人发生争执,并时而陷入死亡的危机中;因>精神群体<想法的破裂,陷入自我怀疑的困境。本文一方面分析了约瑟夫矛盾曲折的心路历程,揭示其心理转化;另一方面,通过弗洛姆的逃避自由机制阐释约瑟夫无法忍受自由之苦,因此放弃自决并投身军队的逃避行为。结合约瑟夫的经历与弗洛姆的自由理论,从社会学和心理学角度,论述现代人得到自由后不知如何利用,无法忍受自由带来的孤独感,最后只能放弃自由投靠于更强大的存在来消除自主性获得平静。本文通过约瑟夫的>失败的自由追寻之旅<和弗洛姆对自由的心理分析发现,自由问题伴随人类的生存,只有经由充满自主努力和爱的社会互动才能获得>纯粹自由<,达成与社会的和解。否则约瑟夫的故事,也会是大多数现代人的故事。
  • As a spokesman for modern humanism, Bellow has continued to advocate a return to the Romantic emphasis on humanity and the heart in his writing. As a writer with both a Jewish background and American life experience, Bellow's works break away from the mainstream of modern literature and are dedicated to saving modern people from confusion and helplessness. This paper argues that Bellow differs from his contemporaries in that while he satirizes the decay of modern society, he portrays the inner search and struggle of modern people to the fullest extent, and hints at the possibility of a better life between the lines, guiding the wanderers to return to society. This paper selects his debut novel >Dangling Man< and uses it to show the journey of Joseph, the first Bello-style hero, in his search for freedom: from blocking himself and alienating himself from others to repeatedly arguing with others in his search for himself, and sometimes falling into the crisis of death; and falling into the dilemma of self-doubt due to the breakdown of the idea of >spiritual community<. On the one hand, this paper analyzes Joseph's contradictory and tortuous journey and reveals his psychological transformation; on the other hand, through Fromm's escape from freedom mechanism, it explains Joseph's escape behavior of giving up self-determination and joining the army because he could not bear the suffering of freedom. Combining Joseph's experience with Fromm's theory of freedom, the paper discusses from the sociological and psychological perspectives that modern people do not know how to make use of their freedom and cannot tolerate the loneliness brought by freedom, so they can only give up their freedom and join a more powerful being to eliminate their autonomy and gain peace. Through Joseph's >failed journey to freedom< and Fromm's psychological analysis of freedom, this paper finds that the problem of freedom accompanies human existence and that only through social interaction filled with autonomous efforts and love can we achieve >pure freedom< and reconciliation with society. Otherwise, Joseph's story would be the story of most modern people. . [Translation: www.DeepL/Translator, free version, 6/2021]

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Author:Jiali Wang
Document Type:Dissertations
Year of first Publication:2020
Release Date:2022/05/04
Format:no download and copy possible
Writings about Erich Fromm (Secondary Literature):Dissertations / Dissertationen
Erich Fromm's Library and Erich Fromm Archive:Dissertations / Dissertationen
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