Psychotic Suicide in Schnitzler's Works – >Fräulein Else< and >Die Nächste< as Examples [施尼茨勒作品中的精神病式自杀 – 以《埃尔泽小姐》和《下一个女人》为例], Master thesis, German Language and Literature, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei, China 2020 [application of Fromm's theories to art].

  • 阿图尔·施尼茨勒(Arthur Schnitzler,1862~1931),奥地利小说家、剧作家,维也纳现代派主要代表人物之一,也是第一个把意识流手法运用到德语文学中,并通篇采用内心独白手法的作家。论文选取施尼茨勒的两部作品《埃尔泽小姐》和《下一个女人》,运用精神分析理论,主要包括弗洛伊德的人格理论和弗洛姆的社会无意识理论来阐释两部作品的主人公精神病式自杀的原因,并对两部作品的异同进行比较:虽然两个主人公境遇不同,但他们的悲剧命运和导致悲剧命运的原因是类似的。论文首先介绍《埃尔泽小姐》和《下一个女人》这两部作品的内容概况和时代背景,交代19世纪末20世纪初的维也纳社会状况。第二部分阐释两部作品中主人公结局多种解读的可能性。但是无论何种结局,两个主人公最终都有着寻求自我出路失败的悲剧命运。第三部分运用弗洛伊德的人格理论分析主人公的内心冲突。当>自我<在>本我<冲动与>超我<监督之间的调节失去平衡时便会导致精神病。通过埃尔泽和古斯塔夫在看待金钱,两性,生与死时的内心冲突与变化阐释两个主人公精神病式自杀的内在原因。第四部分运用弗洛姆的社会无意识理论中的社会无意识产生机制,即社会过滤器,阐释两部作品中主人公精神病式自杀的外在原因。父权压制,女性被视为客体,金钱至上的社会意识是埃尔泽服毒的根本原因;社会道德在古斯塔夫意识里的根深蒂固,以及他对其他女性的道德要求是他的内心得不到安宁的根本原因。最后一部分对两部作品进行比较,虽然两部作品的主人公所处阶层,性别,境遇和寻求出路的具体方法不同,但他们都有着强烈的意识冲突,并最终走向精神病式自杀的悲剧命运。导致这种悲剧的根本原因都在于社会过滤机制的内化和对社会无意识的压制。
  • Arthur Schnitzler (1862-1931) was an Austrian novelist and playwright, one of the main representatives of the Viennese Modern School, and the first writer to apply the stream-of-consciousness technique to German literature and to use the inner monologue throughout. The thesis selects two works by Schnitzler, >Fräulein Else< and >Die Nächste<, and uses psychoanalytic theories, mainly Freud's theory of personality and Fromm's theory of the social unconscious, to explain the reasons for the psychotic suicide of the protagonists of the two works and to compare the similarities and differences between the two works. Although the two characters are in different situations, their tragic fates and the causes of their tragic fates are similar. The thesis first introduces the content and background of the two works, >Fräulein Else< and >Die Nächste<, and gives an account of the social situation in Vienna at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century.– The second part of the paper explains the possibilities of various interpretations of the endings of the protagonists in the two works. However, no matter what the endings are, both protagonists ultimately share the tragic fate of failing to find their own way out.– The third part uses Freud's personality theory to analyze the inner conflict of the protagonists. When the >ego< is out of balance between the >ego< impulse and the >superego< supervision, it will lead to psychosis. The inner conflicts and changes of Else and Gustav in their perceptions of money, gender, life and death explain the inner reasons for the psychotic suicides of the two main characters.– The fourth part uses the social filter of Fromm's theory of the social unconscious to explain the external causes of the psychotic suicides of the protagonists in both works. The underlying reasons for Else's poisoning are patriarchal oppression, the perception of women as objects, and the social consciousness of the primacy of money; the deep-rooted social morality in Gustav's consciousness and his moral demands on other women are the underlying reasons for his lack of inner peace.– The last part compares the two works. Although the protagonists of the two works are different in terms of class, gender, situation and specific ways to find a way out, they both have a strong conflict of consciousness and eventually come to the tragic fate of psychotic suicide. The root cause of such tragedies lies in the internalization of social filtering mechanisms and the suppression of the social unconscious. [Translation: www.DeepL/Translator, free version, 6/2021]

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Author:Pei Luo
Document Type:Dissertations
Year of first Publication:2020
Release Date:2022/05/04
Format:no download and copy possible
Writings about Erich Fromm (Secondary Literature):Dissertations / Dissertationen
Erich Fromm's Library and Erich Fromm Archive:Dissertations / Dissertationen
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