A Study of the Writing of Homosexual Predicaments in >Carol< [论《卡罗尔》中的同性恋困境书写], Master thesis, English Language and Literature, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou, Gansu, China 2020 [application of Fromm's theories to art].

  • 同性恋已成为了文学创作中的一个重要题材,但由于其特殊性,学者们至今尚未给予充分关注。然而,对同性恋现象及其文学书写问题进行客观审视,于推动社会观念进步具有重大意义。美国作家帕特里夏·海史密斯在女同性恋文学的早期代表作《卡罗尔》中,为主人公们安排了相对圆满的结局,并藉此表达了她对同性恋群体的同情。本文旨在以弗洛姆的新人道主义伦理学和文学伦理学批评的相关方法,解读该作品中的同性恋困境书写问题,主要聚焦于同性恋困境的表征、作者呈现同性恋困境的方式、作者书写同性恋困境的原因等三个方面。基于二十世纪五十年代西方社会的道德与伦理环境,本文首先讨论了同性恋者面临的三重困境,即特殊的身份定位、遭遇社会的边缘化和被迫逃避道德责任。接着在文中分析了作者具体的书写方式——并置外部和内部困境、插入人物间的讨论和运用副文本。最后观照作者的个人经历、生活背景和心理状况,本文探讨了其对自身性取向的担忧、对同性恋群体的关切和对建立健全社会的呼吁。海史密斯书写同性恋困境,意在引发读者正视和思考同性恋群体的生存状况,并推动社会观念的进步。本文旨在通过解读《卡罗尔》中的同性恋困境书写问题,引起人们对所有边缘群体生存困境的进一步关注和研究。
  • Homosexuality has already become an important theme of numerous literary works, but due to its particularity, scholars have paid little attention to it until now. In actuality, an objective study of the problems concerning homosexuality is of great significance to the advancement of the social ideas. In the novel Carol, American writer Patricia Highsmith arranges a happy ending for the characters and thus shows her own sympathetic attitudes towards them. This thesis aims to interpret the writing of homosexual predicaments in Carol by use of Fromm’s neo-humanistic ethics and some methods of ethical literary criticism, and focuses on summarizing the demonstration of predicaments, analyzing the writing strategies of the author and probing into the reasons. Based on the ethical environment and social morality of the western society in the 1950s, this thesis starts with discussing three types of predicaments confronted by the homosexuals, which are the conspicuous identity orientation, social marginalization and estrangement from moral responsibility. Then, it turns to analyzing the writer’s ways of juxtaposing exterior and interior predicaments, inserting characters’ discussions and usage of the paratext in details. At last, taking Highsmith’s personal experience, background and psychological status into account, it delves into her worries about her own sexual orientation, concerns for the homosexuals and calls for a sane society, which are actually the major reasons why Highsmith was engaged in representing homosexual predicaments. Highsmith’s writing of the homosexual predicaments is intended to arouse readers’ looking squarely at and reevaluating the living conditions of the homosexual group, and promote the development of social ideas as well. By analyzing the homosexual predicaments in the novel Carol, this thesis tries to promote the further attention and study of all marginal groups’ living predicaments. [Author's translation]

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Author:Yixuan Liu
Document Type:Dissertations
Year of first Publication:2020
Release Date:2022/05/04
Format:no download and copy possible
Writings about Erich Fromm (Secondary Literature):Dissertations / Dissertationen
Erich Fromm's Library and Erich Fromm Archive:Dissertations / Dissertationen
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