On the Aesthetic Actualization of Fromm’s Ideas about Freedom [论弗洛姆自由思想的审美性实现], Master thesis, Aesthetics, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin, Guangxi, China 2014 [application of Fromm's theories to art].

  • 弗洛姆在20世纪生活了80年,时代的风云变幻在他心里留下了深刻的痕迹。犹太——基督教传统、弗洛伊德和马克思的思想对其思想的形成影响巨大。心理因素对自由的影响是弗洛姆考虑的主要问题。人类自由所遭受的最严重威胁,不在外部,而在人的内心之中。只有当人的内在的心理状况能确保人们的个性时,摆脱外在的权威才能持久地巩固。积极自由的实现有赖于人的整体性人格的实现,有赖于积极地表现人的情感的和理智的潜能的实现。实现自我的创造性是自发性活动的重要表现,实现与人交往的>爱<则是自发性的主要成分。人的情感情绪贯穿了审美活动的全过程。与一般意志相比,审美意志有着更大的自由度。它可以依据主体的目的、动机和理想等自由地选择审美客体、自由地运用想象和联想,从而对客体自由地判断和评价,创造审美意象。原创性是审美活动得以发展,艺术生命得以延续的根本原因。审美活动对原创性的需求是必然的,它的出现也是必然的。即便是在>发达资本主义时代<,艺术家仍然保持着难得的清醒,保留着自觉性和主体意识。主体的审美直觉,是整个审美活动的开端,是各种后继审美心理内容和审美形式的基础。它同时又沉淀、渗透于这些后继的心理内容和形式之中。从对审美直觉的分析可以看出,在审美交往的初级阶段,主体对客体已有从被动向主动发展的趋势。通过想象,人们可以对眼前的形象进行改造和创造,形成审美的联系。但审美主体对事物的改造并不是任意的。牢固的审美关系须建立在对审美对象的尊重之上。艺术家通过想象与对象融为一体,从而达到与物的交流。审美主体对客体从认识到接受是一个充满变化的过程。审美既是这一过程的结果,也是这一过程的目的。当这一目的实现之后,主体并不满足,而是继续发掘对象,深化审美的联系。自发性活动是解决自由问题的唯一办法,但现代社会却使人丧失了批判的能力,无法认识到真实的现实和真实的自己。人不能自发的实现自己,不能通过真实的自我而与周遭世界建立正常的联系,因而不但造成了人与世界的疏远和破坏,也造成了对自己身份认同的深切怀疑和恐惧。在审美的过程中,人们不但能够实现真正的自由,而且背弃自由的人也可以重新感受到真正的自由。审美追求是人对自我创造能力的全面实现和以爱连结万物的追求。它的动态的满足即为人的自发性的不断实现。因此,弗洛姆的自由思想便通过审美的方式得以实现。show moreshow less
  • Fromm lived in the20th century for 80years, during which the events and changes of the era hadFromm lived in the20th century for 80years, during which the events and changes of the era had profound influence on his heart. The Jewish-Christian tradition, Freud and Marx’s thought had had a huge impact on the formation of his thought. The influence of psychological factors on freedom is the main problem that Fromm considered. The most serious threat to man’s freedom is not from the outside world, but man’s inner world. Man’s freedom consolidates abidingly only when his inner psy-chological status can ensure his personality and get rid of the influence of authority. The realization of positive freedom relies on the realization of the wholeness of the personality and that of man’s potential in expressing his feelings and intellect positively. The self-realization of creativity is an important performance of spontaneous activity, while the actualization of love in human relationship is the main composition of spontaneity. - The whole process of the aesthetic activities is run through with human feelings and emotions. Compared with common will, there is more freedom in aesthetic will, which can choose aesthetic objects and imagine and associate freely, basing on the aim, motivation and ideality of the subject, thereby freely judge and evaluate the objects and create imago. Originality is the fundamental reason for the development of aesthetic activity and the continuity of art. Originality is the inevitable demand for Aesthetic activity, and its emergence is also inevitable. Even in the >era of capitalism<, artists still remain lucid, keeping his consciousness and subject consciousness. - The subject’s aesthetic intuition is the beginning of the whole aesthetic activity and the foundation of all sorts of subsequent aesthetic mental content and aesthetic form. It also reflects in all sorts of subsequent aesthetic mental content and aesthetic form. From the analysis of aesthetic intuition, we can see the tendency that, in the early stages of aesthetic communication, the subject’s perception of the objects is becoming from passive to active. By imagination, people can modify and recreate the image within sight, thereby develop an aesthetic relationship. However, the aesthetic subject’s transformation of objects is not arbitrary. A strong aesthetic relationship must be based on the respect for the aesthetic objects. Artists become integrated with the objects through imagination, so as to communicate with them. The process of the aesthetic subject’s relationship with the objects, from understanding to acceptance, is full of changes. Aesthetic is both the result of this process and its goal. When this goal is realized, the subject is not satisfied, but continues to explore objects, deepen the aesthetic relationship. - Spontaneous activity is the only way to solve the problem of freedom, but modern society makes people lose the ability to criticize and unable to recognize the true reality and their real selves. Because people cannot actualize themselves spontaneous, nor can they establish the normal contact with the world around them with their true selves, the relationship between human beings and the world is estranged and even destructed, which makes people doubt and fear their self-identities. In the process of aesthetic, people can not only realize the real freedom, but also help people who have abandoned freedom to feel real freedom again. The pursuit of aesthetic is the overall implementation of self creation ability and the pursuit of connecting all things on earth with love. Its dynamic content is the continuous actualization. As a result, Fromm’s ideas about freedom are realized by means of aesthetic. [Author’s translation]show moreshow less

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Author:Liuzhu Qi
Document Type:Dissertations
Year of first Publication:2014
Release Date:2016/09/29
Format:no download and copy possible
Writings about Erich Fromm (Secondary Literature):Dissertations / Dissertationen
Erich Fromm's Library and Erich Fromm Archive:Dissertations / Dissertationen
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