Conformity or Freedom: A Psychoanalytic Interpretation of >The Flight from the Enchanter< [顺从还是自由 -《逃离巫师》的精神分析解读], Master thesis, English Language and Literature University: Anhui University, Hefei, Anhui, China 2015 [application of Fromm's theories to art].

  • 出生于都柏林的艾丽丝•默多克是20世纪英国最杰出的女作家之一。自1954年发表第一部小说《在网下》起,默多克在40余年的文学生涯中完成了26部小说、1部短篇小说集、6部戏剧和2部诗集的创作。这些成就为她在战后英国文坛的重要地位奠定了坚实基础。而作为一名哲学家,默多克也发表过5部重要的哲学著作。她早年曾在牛津大学萨默维尔学院学习哲学,战后则在联合国善后救济总署工作。两次世界大战导致了动荡不安的社会局势,动摇了原有的文化价值观念。默多克亲眼目睹了许多人因出身问题而遭受迫害。他们国破家亡,沦为难民,不得不选择移民,甚至被迫死亡。她的哲学思想也因此有所改变。她不再相信个人具有绝对自由,其小说也更加关注个人在社会上的生存和自由问题。作为犹太裔的精神分析家,埃里希•弗洛姆在二战时也遭到德国纳粹施虐统治的迫害。这种经历是他社会心理学理论的重要现实来源。他在《逃避自由》中提出了自己对社会性格的理解,分析了集权社会下的施虐-受虐性格倾向。他为健全的社会描绘了蓝图,也希望为现代人的民主和自由指明方向。因此,默多克和弗洛姆都试图为当代人在社会上的生存找寻出路,他们的观点不谋而合。本文将依托弗洛姆的社会心理学理论,分析默多克第二部小说《逃离巫师》中主要人物的施虐-受虐性格倾向,找寻众人物无法逃离>巫师<的心理原因,进而理解默多克在本小说中对自由的认识。文章共分成六个部分。第一章简单介绍默多克的生平及成就,对国内外默多克小说研究现状进行梳理,并提出作者研究《逃离巫师》的独特视角。第二章是论文的理论依据,综合论述弗洛姆提出的集权社会下的施虐-受虐性格理论。第三、四章为本文的主干,通过细读小说文本,分析代表人物的受虐倾向和巫师米沙的施虐统治,尝试解释受虐狂们无法逃离同巫师之间共生关系的原因,进而分析其各自集权主义性格形成的根源。第五章首先分析默多克个人对该小说人物悲剧的认识,随后指出其在该小说中的自由观,最后用弗洛姆的心理学理论对其评价,指出其不足之处。第六章作为结束章节,对全文进行概况总结。
  • [Iris Murdoch , born in Dublin, is one of the most outstanding female writers in Britain. After the publi-cation of her first novel Under the Net in 1954, Murdoch completed, in her literary career of more than 40 years, 26 novels, 1 short story,6 plays and 2 poetry collections. These great achievements help lay a solid foundation for her important position in British literature in the post-war era. Murdoch is also a philosopher who publishes 5 great works of philosophy. She studies philosophy at Somerville College, Oxford when she is young, and works for the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration after the Second World War. The two world wars give rise to the turbulent social situa-tion, and shake the traditional cultural values. Murdoch witnesses that many people are persecuted just because of their origins. Their countries are ruined and perished, and they become refugees who have to emi-grate, or even are forced to death. Therefore, Murdoch also changes her philosophical thoughts to some extent. She does not believe in absolute freedom of individuals any longer, but pays more attention in her novels to the matters of individual existence and the way to freedom. - Erich Fromm, a psychoanalyst of Jewish parentage, is also persecuted for some time by the sadistic governance of the German Nazis during World War II. This experience is an important and direct source of his theory of social psychology. In his Escape from Freedom, Fromm proposes his under-standing of social character, and analyzes the masochistic and sadistic strivings in an authoritarian society. He draws a blueprint for a sane society, hoping to point out the direction of democracy and freedom for people in modern society. Therefore, both Murdoch and Fromm try to find ways out for people’s existence in the contemporary society, and they happen to hold similar views. Relying on Fromm’s theory of social psychology, the author of this thesis will make thorough analyses of sado-masochistic tendencies of major characters in Murdoch’s second novel, The Flight from the Enchan-ter , and find out the reasons for many characters’ inability to escape from >the enchanter<, so as to understand Murdoch’s view of freedom in this novel. - This paper is divided into six parts. In Chapter One, the author briefly introduces the life and achievements of Iris Murdoch, summarizes the criticism of Murdoch’s novels at home and aboard, and presents his unique perspective to analyze Murdoch’s second novel, >The Flight from the En-chanter<.– Chapter Two is the summary of Erich Fromm’s theory of sado-masochism in the authori-tarian society, laying a solid theoretical foundation for this thesis.– Chapter Three and Four are body parts of the thesis. The author makes thorough analyses of masochistic strivings of representtative characters and sadistic domination of the enchanter Mischa by close reading of this novel, trying to explain reasons for masochists’ inability to escape from the symbiotic relationship with the enchanter and find roots of their authoritarian characters.– In Chapter Five, the author first analyzes Murdoch’s understandings of the tragic destinies of the characters in FFTE, then points out her view of freedom reflected in this novel, and at last tries to evaluate her view of freedom and indicates the limitation of her theory by Fromm’s psychological theory.– Chapter Six is the conclusion of the whole thesis. [Author’s translation]

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Author:Yin Li
Document Type:Dissertations
Year of first Publication:2015
Release Date:2016/09/29
Format:no download and copy possible
Writings about Erich Fromm (Secondary Literature):Dissertations / Dissertationen
Erich Fromm's Library and Erich Fromm Archive:Dissertations / Dissertationen
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