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18-37

Optimization models often feature disjunctions of polytopes as
submodels. Such a disjunctive set is initially (at best) relaxed to
its convex hull, which is then refined by branching.
To measure the error of the convex relaxation, the (relative)
difference between the volume of the convex hull and the volume of the
disjunctive set may be used. This requires a method to compute the
volume of the disjunctive set. Naively, this can be done via
inclusion/exclusion and leveraging the existing code for the volume
of polytopes. However, this is often inefficient.
We propose a revised variant of an old algorithm by Bieri and Nef
(1983) for this purpose. The algorithm uses a sweep-plane to
incrementally calculate the volume of the disjunctive set as a
function of the offset parameter of the sweep-plane.

18-35

The amazing success of computational mathematical optimization over the last decades has been driven more by insights into mathematical structures than by the advance of computing technology. In this vein, we address applications, where nonconvexity in the model poses principal difficulties.
This paper summarizes the dissertation of Jonas Schweiger for the occasion of the GOR dissertation award 2018. We focus on the work on non-convex quadratic programs and show how problem specific structure can be used to obtain tight relaxations and speed up Branch&Bound methods. Both a classic general QP and the Pooling Problem as an important practical application serve as showcases.

18-26

The SCIP Optimization Suite provides a collection of software packages for mathematical optimization centered around the constraint integer programming framework SCIP. This paper discusses enhancements and extensions contained in version 6.0 of the SCIP Optimization Suite. Besides performance improvements of the MIP and MINLP core achieved by new primal heuristics and a new selection criterion for cutting planes, one focus of this release are decomposition algorithms. Both SCIP and the automatic decomposition solver GCG now include advanced functionality for performing Benders’ decomposition in a generic framework. GCG’s detection loop for structured matrices and the coordination of pricing routines for Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition has been significantly revised for greater flexibility. Two SCIP extensions have been added
to solve the recursive circle packing problem by a problem-specific column generation scheme and to demonstrate the use of the new Benders’ framework for stochastic capacitated facility location. Last, not least, the report presents updates and additions to the other components and extensions of the SCIP Optimization Suite: the LP solver SoPlex, the modeling language Zimpl, the parallelization framework UG, the Steiner tree solver SCIP-Jack, and the mixed-integer semidefinite programming solver SCIP-SDP.

18-29

We consider the Cumulative Scheduling Problem (CuSP) in which a set of $n$ jobs must be scheduled according to release dates, due dates and cumulative resource constraints. In constraint programming, the CuSP is modeled as the cumulative constraint. Among the most common propagation algorithms for the CuSP there is energetic reasoning (Baptiste et al., 1999) with a complexity of O(n^3) and edge-finding (Vilim, 2009) with O(kn log n) where k <= n is the number of different resource demands. We consider the complete versions of the propagators that perform all deductions in one call of the algorithm. In this paper, we introduce the energetic edge-finding rule that is a generalization of both energetic reasoning and edge-finding. Our main result is a complete energetic edge-finding algorithm with a complexity of O(n^2 log n) which improves upon the complexity of energetic reasoning. Moreover, we show that a relaxation of energetic edge-finding with a complexity of O(n^2) subsumes edge-finding while performing stronger propagations from energetic reasoning. A further result shows that energetic edge-finding reaches its fixpoint in strongly polynomial time. Our main insight is that energetic schedules can be interpreted as a single machine scheduling problem from which we deduce a monotonicity property that is exploited in the algorithms. Hence, our algorithms improve upon the strength and the complexity of energetic reasoning and edge-finding whose complexity status seemed widely untouchable for the last decades.

17-79

A Polyhedral Study of Event-Based Models for the Resource-Constrained Project Scheduling Problem
(2018)

We consider event-based Mixed-Integer Programming (MIP) models for the Resource-Constrained Project Scheduling Problem (RCPSP) that represent an alternative to the common time-indexed model (DDT) of Pritsker et al. (1969) for the case where the underlying time horizon is large or job processing times are subject to huge variations. In contrast to the time-indexed model, the size of event-based models does not depend on the time horizon. For two event-based formulations OOE and SEE of Koné et al. (2011) we present new valid inequalities that dominate the original formulation. Additionally, we introduce a new event-based model: the Interval Event-Based Model (IEE). We deduce linear transformations between all three models that yield the strict domination order IEE > SEE > OOE for their linear programming (LP) relaxations, meaning that IEE has the strongest linear relaxation among the event-based models. We further show that the popular DDT formulation can be retrieved from IEE by certain polyhedral operations, thus giving a unifying view on a complete branch of MIP formulations for the RCPSP. In addition, we analyze the computational performance of all presented models on test instances of the PSPLIB (Kolisch and Sprecher 1997).

18-27

We study the problem of finding subpaths with high demand in a given network that is traversed by several users. The demand of a subpath is the number of users who completely cover this subpath during their trip.
Especially with large instances, an efficient algorithm for computing all subpaths' demands is necessary. We introduce a path-graph to prevent multiple generations of the same subpath and give a recursive approach to compute the demands of all subpaths.
Our runtime analysis shows, that the presented approach compares very well against the
theoretical minimum runtime.

18-25

The void space of granular materials is generally divided into larger local volumes denoted as pores and throats connecting pores. The smallest section in a throat is usually denoted as constriction. A correct description of pores and constrictions may help to understand the processes related to the transport of fluid or fine particles through granular materials, or to build models of imbibition for unsaturated granular media. In the case of numerical granular materials involving packings of spheres, different methods can be used to compute the pore space properties. However, these methods generally induce an over-segmentation of the pore network and a merging step is usually applied to mitigate such undesirable artifacts even if a precise delineation of a pore is somewhat subjective. This study provides a comparison between different merging criteria for pores in packing of spheres and a discussion about their implication on both the pore size distribution and the constriction size distribution of the material. A correspondence between these merging techniques is eventually proposed as a guide for the user.

18-20

Let $G$ be a directed acyclic graph with $n$ arcs, a source $s$ and a sink $t$. We introduce the cone $K$ of flow matrices, which is a polyhedral cone
generated by the matrices $1_P 1_P^T \in R^{n\times n}$, where
$1_P\in R^n$ is the incidence vector of the $(s,t)$-path $P$.
Several combinatorial problems reduce to a linear optimization problem over $K$.
This cone is intractable, but we provide two convergent approximation hierarchies, one of them based on a
completely positive representation of $K$.
We illustrate this approach by computing bounds for a maximum flow problem with pairwise arc-capacities.

18-19

We consider the stochastic extensible bin packing problem (SEBP) in which $n$ items of stochastic size are packed into $m$ bins of unit capacity. In contrast to the classical bin packing problem, bins can be extended at extra cost. This problem plays an important role in stochastic environments such as in surgery scheduling: Patients must be assigned to operating rooms beforehand, such that the regular capacity is fully utilized while the amount of overtime is as small as possible.
This paper focuses on essential ratios between different classes of policies: First, we consider the price of non-splittability, in which we compare the optimal non-anticipatory policy against the optimal fractional assignment policy. We show that this ratio has a tight upper bound of $2$. Moreover, we develop an analysis of a fixed assignment variant of the LEPT rule yielding a tight approximation ratio of $1+1/e \approx 1.368$ under a reasonable assumption on the distributions of job durations.
Furthermore, we prove that the price of fixed assignments, which describes the loss when restricting to fixed assignment policies, is within the same factor. This shows that in some sense, LEPT is the best fixed assignment policy we can hope for.

18-23

In this article we analyze a generalized trapezoidal rule for initial value problems with piecewise smooth right hand side F:IR^n -> IR^n.
When applied to such a problem, the classical trapezoidal rule suffers from a loss of accuracy if the solution trajectory intersects a non-differentiability of F. In such a situation the investigated generalized trapezoidal rule achieves a higher convergence order than the classical method. While the asymptotic behavior of the generalized method was investigated in a previous work, in the present article we develop the algorithmic structure for efficient implementation strategies
and estimate the actual computational cost of the latter.
Moreover, energy preservation of the generalized trapezoidal rule is proved for Hamiltonian systems with piecewise linear right hand side.