## G.1.6 Optimization

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RENS – the optimal rounding
(2012)

This article introduces RENS, the relaxation enforced neighborhood search, a large neighborhood search algorithm for mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) that uses a sub-MINLP to explore the set of feasible roundings of an optimal solution x' of a linear or nonlinear relaxation. The sub-MINLP is constructed by fixing integer variables x_j with x'_j in Z and bounding the remaining integer variables to x_j in {floor(x'_j), ceil(x'_j)}. We describe two different applications of RENS: as a standalone algorithm to compute an optimal rounding of the given starting solution and as a primal heuristic inside a complete MINLP solver.
We use the former to compare different kinds of relaxations and the impact of cutting planes on the roundability of the corresponding optimal solutions. We further utilize RENS to analyze the performance of three rounding heuristics implemented in the branch-cut-and-price framework SCIP. Finally, we study the impact of RENS when it is applied as a primal heuristic inside SCIP.
All experiments were performed on three publically available test sets of mixed integer linear programs (MIPs), mixed integer quadratically constrained programs (MIQCPs), and MINLPs, using solely software which is available in source code.
It turns out that for these problem classes 60% to 70% of the instances have roundable relaxation optima and that the success rate of RENS does not depend on the percentage of fractional variables. Last but not least, RENS applied as primal heuristic complements nicely with existing root node heuristics in SCIP and improves the overall performance.

Learning during search allows solvers for discrete optimization problems to remember parts of the search that they have already performed and avoid revisiting redundant parts. Learning approaches pioneered by the SAT and CP communities have been successfully incorporated into the SCIP constraint integer programming platform. In this paper we show that performing a heuristic constraint programming search during root node processing of a binary program can rapidly learn useful nogoods, bound changes, primal solutions, and branching statistics that improve the remaining IP search.

We present Undercover, a primal heuristic for mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP). The heuristic constructs a mixed-integer linear subproblem (sub-MIP) of a given MINLP by fixing a subset of the variables. We solve a set covering problem to identify a minimal set of variables which need to be fixed in order to linearise each constraint. Subsequently, these variables are fixed to approximate values, e.g. obtained from a linear outer approximation. The resulting sub-MIP is solved by a mixed-integer linear programming solver. Each feasible solution of the sub-MIP corresponds to a feasible solution of the original problem. Although general in nature, the heuristic seems most promising for mixed-integer quadratically constrained programmes (MIQCPs). We present computational results on a general test set of MIQCPs selected from the MINLPLib.

This thesis introduces the novel paradigm of constraint integer programming (CIP), which integrates constraint programming (CP) and mixed integer programming (MIP) modeling and solving techniques. It is supplemented by the software SCIP, which is a solver and framework for constraint integer programming that also features SAT solving techniques. SCIP is freely available in source code for academic and non-commercial purposes. Our constraint integer programming approach is a generalization of MIP that allows for the inclusion of arbitrary constraints, as long as they turn into linear constraints on the continuous variables after all integer variables have been fixed. The constraints, may they be linear or more complex, are treated by any combination of CP and MIP techniques: the propagation of the domains by constraint specific algorithms, the generation of a linear relaxation and its solving by LP methods, and the strengthening of the LP by cutting plane separation. The current version of SCIP comes with all of the necessary components to solve mixed integer programs. In the thesis, we cover most of these ingredients and present extensive computational results to compare different variants for the individual building blocks of a MIP solver. We focus on the algorithms and their impact on the overall performance of the solver. In addition to mixed integer programming, the thesis deals with chip design verification, which is an important topic of electronic design automation. Chip manufacturers have to make sure that the logic design of a circuit conforms to the specification of the chip. Otherwise, the chip would show an erroneous behavior that may cause failures in the device where it is employed. An important subproblem of chip design verification is the property checking problem, which is to verify whether a circuit satisfies a specified property. We show how this problem can be modeled as constraint integer program and provide a number of problem-specific algorithms that exploit the structure of the individual constraints and the circuit as a whole. Another set of extensive computational benchmarks compares our CIP approach to the current state-of-the-art SAT methodology and documents the success of our method.