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#### Institute

- Validation of Nominations in Gas Network Optimization: Models, Methods, and Solutions (2014)
- In this article we investigate methods to solve a fundamental task in gas transportation, namely the validation of nomination problem: Given a gas transmission network consisting of passive pipelines and active, controllable elements and given an amount of gas at every entry and exit point of the network, find operational settings for all active elements such that there exists a network state meeting all physical, technical, and legal constraints. We describe a two-stage approach to solve the resulting complex and numerically difficult feasibility problem. The first phase consists of four distinct algorithms applying linear, and methods for complementarity constraints to compute possible settings for the discrete decisions. The second phase employs a precise continuous programming model of the gas network. Using this setup, we are able to compute high quality solutions to real-world industrial instances that are significantly larger than networks that have appeared in the mathematical programming literature before.

- Validation of Nominations in Gas Network Optimization: Models, Methods, and Solutions (2012)
- In this article we investigate methods to solve a fundamental task in gas transportation, namely the validation of nomination problem: Given a gas transmission network consisting of passive pipelines and active, controllable elements and given an amount of gas at every entry and exit point of the network, find operational settings for all active elements such that there exists a network state meeting all physical, technical, and legal constraints. We describe a two-stage approach to solve the resulting complex and numerically difficult mixed-integer non-convex nonlinear feasibility problem. The first phase consists of four distinct algorithms facilitating mixed-integer linear, mixed-integer nonlinear, reduced nonlinear, and complementarity constrained methods to compute possible settings for the discrete decisions. The second phase employs a precise continuous nonlinear programming model of the gas network. Using this setup, we are able to compute high quality solutions to real-world industrial instances whose size is significantly larger than networks that have appeared in the literature previously.

- The SCIP Optimization Suite 4.0 (2017)
- The SCIP Optimization Suite is a powerful collection of optimization software that consists of the branch-cut-and-price framework and mixed-integer programming solver SCIP, the linear programming solver SoPlex, the modeling language Zimpl, the parallelization framework UG, and the generic branch-cut-and-price solver GCG. Additionally, it features the extensions SCIP-Jack for solving Steiner tree problems, PolySCIP for solving multi-objective problems, and SCIP-SDP for solving mixed-integer semidefinite programs. The SCIP Optimization Suite has been continuously developed and has now reached version 4.0. The goal of this report is to present the recent changes to the collection. We not only describe the theoretical basis, but focus on implementation aspects and their computational consequences.

- Computing Optimal Morse Matchings (2004)
- Morse matchings capture the essential structural information of discrete Morse functions. We show that computing optimal Morse matchings is NP-hard and give an integer programming formulation for the problem. Then we present polyhedral results for the corresponding polytope and report on computational results.

- A Column-Generation Approach to Line Planning in Public Transport (2005)
- The line planning problem is one of the fundamental problems in strategic planning of public and rail transport. It consists in finding lines and corresponding frequencies in a transport network such that a given travel demand can be satisfied. There are (at least) two objectives. The transport company wishes to minimize operating costs, the passengers want to minimize travel times. We propose a n ew multi-commodity flow model for line planning. Its main features, in comparison to existing models, are that the passenger paths can be freely routed and that the lines are generated dynamically. We discuss properties of this model and investigate its complexity. Results with data for the city of Potsdam, Germany, are reported.

- Public Transport to the fORe! (2005)
- Can OR methods help the public transport industry to break even? The article gives evidence that there exist significant potentials in this direction, which can be harnessed by a combination of modern mathematical methods and local planning knowledge. Many of the planning steps in public transport are classical combinatorial problems, which can be solved in unprecedented size and quality due the rapid progress in large-scale optimization. Three examples on vehicle scheduling, duty scheduling, and integrated vehicle and duty scheduling illustrate the level that has been reached and the improvements that can be achieved today. Extensions of such methods to further questions of strategic, online, and market-oriented planning are currently investigated. In this way, OR can make a significant contribution to answer the basic but extremely difficult question ``What is a good public transport network?.

- Routing in Line Planning for Public Transportation (2005)
- The line planning problem is one of the fundamental problems in strategic planning of public and rail transport. It consists in finding lines and corresponding frequencies in a network such that a giv en demand can be satisfied. There are two objectives. Passengers want to minimize travel times, the transport company wishes to minimize operating costs. We investigate three variants of a multi-commo dity flow model for line planning that differ with respect to passenger routings. The first model allows arbitrary routings, the second only unsplittable routings, and the third only shortest path rou tings with respect to the network. We compare these models theoretically and computationally on data for the city of Potsdam.

- A Branch-And-Cut for the Maximum Feasible Subsystem Problem (2005)
- We present a branch-and-cut algorithm for the NP-hard maximum feasible subsystem problem: For a given infeasible linear inequality system, determine a feasible subsystem containing as many inequalities as possible. The complementary problem, where one has to remove as few inequalities as possible in order to render the system feasible, can be formulated as a set covering problem. The rows of this formulation correspond to irreducible infeasible subsystems, which can be exponentially many. The main issue of a branch-and-cut algorithm for MaxFS is to efficiently find such infeasible subsystems. We present three heuristics for the corresponding NP-hard separation problem and discuss further cutting planes. This paper contains an extensive computational study of our implementation on a variety of instances arising in a number of applications.

- Packing and Partitioning Orbitopes (2006)
- We introduce orbitopes as the convex hulls of 0/1-matrices that are lexicographically maximal subject to a group acting on the columns. Special cases are packing and partitioning orbitopes, which arise from restrictions to matrices with at most or exactly one 1-entry in each row, respectively. The goal of investigating these polytopes is to gain insight into ways of breaking certain symmetries in integer programs by adding constraints, e.g., for a well-known formulation of the graph coloring problem. We provide a thorough polyhedral investigation of packing and partitioning orbitopes for the cases in which the group acting on the columns is the cyclic group or the symmetric group. Our main results are complete linear inequality descriptions of these polytopes by facet-defining inequalities. For the cyclic group case, the descriptions turn out to be totally unimodular, while for the symmetric group case, both the description and the proof are more involved. The associated separation problems can be solved in linear time.

- Competitive Online Multicommodity Routing (2006)
- We study online multicommodity minimum cost routing problems in networks, where commodities have to be routed sequentially. Arcs are equipped with load dependent price functions defining the routing weights. We discuss an online algorithm that routes each commodity by minimizing a convex cost function that depends on the demands that are previously routed. We present a competitive analysis of this algorithm showing that for affine linear price functions this algorithm is $4K/2+K$-competitive, where $K$ is the number of commodities. For the parallel arc case this algorithm is optimal. Without restrictions on the price functions and network, no algorithm is competitive. Finally, we investigate a variant in which the demands have to be routed unsplittably.