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Periodic timetabling is an important strategic planning problem in public transport. The task is to determine periodic arrival and departure times of the lines in a given network, minimizing the travel time of the passengers. We extend the modulo network simplex method, a well-established heuristic for the periodic timetabling problem, by integrating a passenger (re)routing step into the pivot operations. Computations on real-world networks show that we can indeed find timetables with much shorter total travel time, when we take the passengers' travel paths into consideration.

The Periodic Event Scheduling Problem is a well-studied NP-hard problem with applications in public transportation to find good periodic timetables. Among the most powerful heuristics to solve the periodic timetabling problem is the modulo network simplex method. In this paper, we consider the more difficult version with integrated passenger routing and propose a refined integrated variant to solve this problem on real-world-based instances.

Common models and solving approaches for the problem of periodic timetabling, that is, determining periodic arrival and departure times of a given public transportation network’s lines so that the total weighted travel time of all passengers is minimized, fail to take passenger behavior into account. Current research is attempting to resolve this issue and first results show a positive impact on solution quality. This thesis aims to give a brief overview of literature on the topic of timetabling and to then state a heuristic approach to Integrated Timetabling by blending passenger behavior into the Modulo Network Simplex algorithm, which is part of the research carried out by the author’s study group at the Zuse Institut Berlin in the framework of MATHEON’s research project MI-3 supported by the Einstein Foundation Berlin.

The well-known network simplex algorithm is a powerful tool to solve flow problems on graphs. Based on a recent dissertation by Isabel Beckenbach, we develop the necessary theory to extend the network simplex to capacitated flow problems on hypergraphs and implement this new variant. We then attempt to solve instances arising from real-life vehicle rotation planning problems.

The ongoing electrification of logistics systems and vehicle fleets increases the complexity of associated vehicle routing or scheduling problems.
Battery-powered vehicles have to be scheduled to recharge in-service, and the relationship between charging time and replenished driving range is non-linear.
In order to access the powerful toolkit offered by mixed-integer and linear programming techniques, this battery behavior has to be linearized.
Moreover, as electric fleets grow, power draw peaks have to be avoided to save on electricity costs or to adhere to hard grid capacity limits, such that it becomes desirable to keep recharge rates dynamic.
We suggest a novel linearization approach of battery charging behavior for vehicle scheduling problems, in which the recharge rates are optimization variables and not model parameters.

The currently most popular approach to handle non-linear battery behavior for electric vehicle scheduling is to use a linear spline interpolation of the charge curve. We show that this can lead to approximate models that underestimate the charge duration and overestimate the state of charge, which is not desirable. While the error is of second order with respect to the interpolation step size, the associated mixed-integer linear programs do not scale well with the number of spline segments. It is therefore recommendable to use coarse interpolation grids adapted to the curvature of the charge curve, and to include sufficient safety margins to ensure solutions of approximate models remain feasible subjected to the exact charge curve.