## 35L50 Initial-boundary value problems for first-order hyperbolic systems

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Periodic Solutions to Dissipative Hyperbolic Systems. II: Hopf Bifurcation for Semilinear Problems
(2013)

We consider boundary value problems for semilinear hyperbolic systems of the type
$$
\partial_tu_j + a_j(x,\la)\partial_xu_j + b_j(x,\la,u) = 0, \; x\in(0,1), \;j=1,\dots,n
$$
with smooth coefficient functions $a_j$
and $b_j$
such that
$b_j(x,\la,0) = 0$ for all $x \in [0,1]$, $\la \in \R$, and $j=1,\ldots,n$.
We state conditions for Hopf bifurcation, i.e.,
for existence, local uniqueness (up to phase shifts), smoothness and smooth dependence
on $\la$
of time-periodic solutions bifurcating from the zero stationary solution. Furthermore,
we derive a formula which determines the bifurcation direction.
The proof is done by means of a Liapunov-Schmidt reduction procedure.
For this purpose, Fredholm properties of the linearized
system and implicit function
theorem techniques are used.
There are at least two distinguishing features of Hopf bifurcation theorems for hyperbolic PDEs in comparison with those for parabolic PDEs or for ODEs:
First, the question if a non-degenerate time-periodic solution depends smoothly on the system parameters
is much more delicate. And second,
a sufficient amount of dissipativity is needed in the system, and a priori
it is not clear how to verify this in terms of the data of the PDEs and of the boundary conditions.

Periodic Solutions to Dissipative Hyperbolic Systems. I: Fredholm Solvability of Linear Problems
(2013)

This paper concerns linear first-order hyperbolic systems in one space dimension of the type
$$
\partial_tu_j + a_j(x,t)\partial_xu_j + \sum\limits_{k=1}^nb_{jk}(x,t)u_k = f_j(x,t),\; x \in (0,1),\; j=1,\ldots,n,
$$
with periodicity conditions in time and reflection boundary conditions in space. We state a kind of dissipativity condition (depending on the coefficients $a_j$ and $b_{jj}$ and the boundary reflection coefficients), which implies Fredholm solvability of the problem, i.e., either there is a nontrivial solution to the homogeneous problem (in this case the space of such solutions has finite dimension) or the nonhomogeneous problem is uniquely solvable for any right-hand side (in this case the solution depends continuously on the right-hand side). In particular, under those conditions no small denominator effects occur.
Our results work for many non-strictly hyperbolic systems, but they are new even in the case of strict hyperbolicity.
Finally, in the case that all coefficients $a_j$ are $t$-independent, we show that the solutions are $C^\infty$-smooth if the data are $C^\infty$-smooth.

This paper concerns $n\times n$ linear one-dimensional hyperbolic systems of the type
$$
\om\partial_tu_j + a_j(x)\partial_xu_j + \sum\limits_{k=1}^nb_{jk}(x)u_k = f_j(x,t),\; j=1,\ldots,n,
$$
with periodicity conditions in time and reflection boundary conditions in space.
We state sufficient conditions on the data $\om, a_j$ and $b_{jk}$
such that the system has a Fredholm like solvability behavior.
Moreover, we state sufficient conditions on the data such that for any right hand side there exists exactly
one solution, that the solution survives under small perturbations of the data, and that the corresponding
data-to-solution-map
is smooth with respect to appropriate function space norms. In particular, those sufficient conditions
imply that no small denominator effects occur. Moreover, we show that perturbations of the coefficients $\om$ and $a_j$ lead to
essentially different results than perturbations of the coefficients $b_{jk}$, in general.

This paper concerns hyperbolic systems of two linear first-order PDEs in one space dimension with periodicity conditions in time and reflection boundary conditions in space.
The coefficients of the PDEs are supposed to be time independent, but allowed to be discontinuous with respect to the space variable. We construct two scales of Banach spaces (for the solutions and for the right hand sides of the equations, respectively) such that the problem can be modeled by means of Fredholm operators of index zero between corresponding spaces of the two scales.
The main tools of the proofs are separation of variables, integral representation of the solutions of the corresponding boundary value problems of the ODE systems and an abstract criterion for Fredholmness which seems to be new.