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#### Schlagworte

- Cordierite (2)
- Inverse analysis (2)
- Anisotropic fiber orientation (1)
- Cohesive Elements (1)
- Cohesive finite elements (1)
- Fiber-reinforced concrete (1)
- Finite elements (1)
- Hysteresis (1)
- Interfacial strength (1)
- Inverse Problems (1)

#### Organisationseinheit der BAM

A numerical framework is developed to study the hysteresis of elastic properties of porous ceramics as a function of temperature. The developed numerical model is capable of employing experimentally measured crystallographic orientation distribution and coefficient of thermal expansion values. For realistic modeling of the microstructure, Voronoi polygons are used to generate polycrystalline grains. Some grains are considered as voids, to simulate the material porosity. To model intercrystalline cracking, cohesive elements are inserted along grain boundaries. Crack healing (recovery of the initial properties) upon closure is taken into account with special cohesive elements implemented in the commercial code ABAQUS. The numerical model can be used to estimate fracture properties governing the cohesive behavior through inverse analysis procedure. The model is applied to a porous cordierite ceramic. The obtained fracture properties are further used to successfully simulate general non-linear macroscopic stress-strain curves of cordierite, thereby validating the model.

Simulating fiber-reinforced concrete mechanical performance using CT-based fiber orientation data
(2019)

The main hindrance to realistic models of fiber-reinforced concrete (FRC) is the local materials property variation, which does not yet reliably allow simulations at the structural level. The idea presented in this paper makes use of an existing constitutive model, but resolves the problem of localized material variation through X-ray computed tomography (CT)-based pre-processing. First, a three-point bending test of a notched beam is considered, where pre-test fiber orientations are measured using CT. A numerical model is then built with the zone subjected to progressive damage, modeled using an orthotropic damage model. To each of the finite elements within this zone, a local coordinate system is assigned, with its longitudinal direction defined by local fiber orientations. Second, the parameters of the constitutive damage model are determined through inverse analysis using load-displacement data obtained from the test. These parameters are considered to clearly explain the material behavior for any arbitrary external action and fiber orientation, for the same geometrical properties and volumetric ratio of fibers. Third, the effectiveness of the resulting model is demonstrated using a second, “control” experiment. The results of the “control” experiment analyzed in this research compare well with the model results. The ultimate strength was predicted with an error of about 6%, while the work-of-load was predicted within 4%. It demonstrates the potential of this method for accurately predicting the mechanical performance of FRC components.

Within polycrystalline porous ceramics used in automotive applications as diesel particulate filters, it is evidenced that during cooling from firing temperature micro cracks are gradually formed. The cracks are formed as a consequence of strong thermal anisotropy of grains. Typically these micro cracks are granting better thermal shock resistance, with respect to dense materials, but reduce stiffness. The reduction can be quantified by measuring the drop in elastic properties of bulk material which, depending on the level of porosity, can decrease even by 50% with respect to its value at high temperature. It is further observed that upon subsequent heating these cracks are closing and partially or totally healing at very high temperatures. Such peculiar behavior results in partial or complete recovery of the elastic properties of bulk material upon completing one thermal cycle. Despite its evident practical application, still there is no constitutive description of this phenomenon, capable of predicting the evolution of Young's modulus as a function of temperature history. For reliable numerical simulation of this phenomenon, it is required to model fracture. To model inter-crystalline fracture, an effective strategy is to use cohesive elements, since crack patterns are a priori known. Major limitation of this approach is that the cohesive elements already implemented within commercial codes cannot take into account crack healing upon subsequent heating. In this study new cohesive element is developed and numerically implemented within ABAQUS commercial finite element code, capable to model crack opening, closing and healing. Further on, a computer code is generated to build numerical model of porous ceramic specimens that takes into account experimentally measured crystallographic orientation and porosity, and models the microstructure by using Voronoi polygons. The developed numerical tools serve as a framework for more realistic simulations, required to study the hysteresis in elastic properties within porous ceramics provoked by thermal cyclic. In a subsequent phase, an inverse analysis procedure is developed, in which macroscopic properties are used to calibrate parameters entering into micro crack model. The approach is centered on a minimization of a discrepancy function designed to quantify the difference between experimentally measured quantities and their computed counterpart. The model is calibrated on the basis of experimental data regarding the drop of bulk Young's modulus with decrease of temperature. Developed procedure is tested with porous cordierite sample, and obtained results are quit promising despite the current limitation of using only two-dimensional model.