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- Fatigue strength (15) (entfernen)

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- 9.1 Betriebsfestigkeit und Bauteilsicherheit (15) (entfernen)

The additive manufacturing technology of Selective Laser Melting (SLM) experiences a rapid development within an increasing marked of quite different application fields. The properties of SLM materials and structures are influenced by a number of tech-nological parameters such as the metal powder (particle size, homogeneity, cleanliness), the laser tool (power, beam diameter, pulse lengths), the scanning operation (speed, sequence and orientation of melting paths), parameters of the over-all equipment (design and preheating of the base plate, currents and turbulence in the protective gas atmosphere) and, last not least, the hatching strategy including the build-up direction of the structure with respect to the loading direction of the component.
For the perspective use of SLM structures as load carrying, safety-relevant components the knowledge of their mechanical properties is necessary. It is essential to understand these in the context of the manufacturing-related features and at the back-ground of the basic characteristics of metallic materials: crystal lattice, microstructure and material defects. The paper provides an overview on factors which affect the mechanical parameters stiffness, strength, ductility, toughness, fatigue crack propagation and fatigue strength in the context of selective laser melting.

Common fracture mechanics based fatigue considerations are usually limited to the residual lifetime determination of so-called long cracks. The extension of this concept to the total lifetime, as in the S-N curve approach, requires an adequate description of short crack propagation which cannot be based on the Delta K concept, and it must consider the crack closure phenomenon as well as its gradual build-up at the short crack stage. Further, it has to provide a meaningful definition of initial crack dimensions and a solution for the multiple crack problem at stress levels higher than the fatigue limit as it is specific for some configurations such as weldments. This paper aims at a discussion of all these points and offers possible solutions which are illustrated by examples taken from the German IBESS project on fracture mechanics based determination of the fatigue strength of weldments, the results of which will be discussed in more detail in this Special issue.

The paper provides an application of the IBESS approach to the investigation of the influence of various parameters of the global and local weld geometry as well as material defects on the fatigue strength of weldments. For this purpose, the global weld parameters, such as the weld toe radius, the flank angle, the excess weld metal, local secondary notches (in the present study as a measure of surface imperfections) and inclusions sizes have been determined as statistical distributions for different joint types and geometries and two steels of different strengths. The results are in line with literature data and reveal the potential of the theoretical approach to predict the correct trends. The combination with an advanced weld quality system has been demonstrated to be possible.

The paper provides an overview on the results of a German cluster project on the use of fracture mechanics to the determination of the fatigue strength of weldments with fatigue cracks originating at the weld toes. The approach includes (a) a concept for short crack propagation for which the common ΔK concept is not applicable and the crack closure effects are still being gradually build-up, (b) a method for determining fatigue life relevant initial crack sizes as they are needed in any fracture mechanics analysis and (c) multiple cracking and crack coalescence at load levels higher than the endurance limit. The analyses are stochastically performed. Both, the endurance limit and the finite life branch of the S-N curve are determined.
Besides a brief introduction into the approach, validation examples are presented. These comprise different weldment types (butt welds, cross joints and longitudinal stiffened plates), two steels (S355NL and S960QL) of quite different strengths, different weld geometries due to different welding techniques (WIG, MAG), as-welded and stress relieved welds and different stress ratios varying from R = -1 to R = 0.5.

If fracture mechanics shall be applied to the total lifetime respectively the fatigue limit of components (within the meaning of the S-N curve approach) it has to address four challenges:
(a) It has to adequately describe so-called short crack propagation, which cannot be based on the common long crack concepts for principle reasons. Since the crack size is in the order of the plastic zone size, the modelling of short crack propagation cannot be based on the common linear elastic Delta K concept. Instead, an elastic-plastic parameter such as the cyclic J integral has to be applied. A second point is that the crack closure concept has to be modified in that the crack opening stress is not a constant, crack size- independent parameter but shows a transient behaviour with increasing short crack size.
(b) It has to provide a meaningful definition of the initial crack dimensions as the starting point for an S-N curve relevant (residual) lifetime analysis. This can be based either on the (statistical) size of material defects which can be treated as cracks or by the size of the crack which would arrest subsequent to early crack propagation, whatever is larger.
(c) It has to cope with the problem of multiple cracks for load levels higher than the fatigue limit such as it occurs in many applications in the absence of very large initial defects.
(d) This requires consequent statistical treatment taking into account variations in the local geometry of the area where crack initiation has to be expected as well as the scatter in the initial crack size and in the material data used for the analyses.

The present paper provides a discussion on all these topics and it offers solutions for it. The authors present an analytical solution of a Delta J based crack driving force based on an R6 type approach but modified for cyclic loading. The gradual build-up of the crack closure effect is modelled by the so-called cyclic R curve which describes the crack size dependency of the fatigue crack propagation threshold in the short crack regime. It is explained how the cyclic R curve is experimentally determined and how it can be estimated by a modified Kitagawa-Takahashi approach.

Damage development and damage tolerance of structures manufactured by selective laser melting
(2017)

The paper gives an overview on safe life and damage tolerance methods applied to railway axles. It describes failure scenarios due to fatigue crack initiation and propagation. Besides common aspects of design, specific features such as corrosion and impact damage from flying ballast are discussed which may reduce the fatigue strength of axles during service. Potential effects of non-metallic inclusions from the steel manufacturing process are addressed in the context of the very high number of loading cycles railway axles are designed for. With respect to damage tolerance general lines of fracture mechanics residual lifetime analyses are introduced. More specific discussion is provided on aspects such as the threshold value of fatigue crack propagation and reliability aspects of non-destructive inspection.

In a number of previous papers, the authors have proposed a model for fracture mechanics based prediction of the S-N characteristics of metallic components with large microstructural defects. Here, an extension to materials that do not show large defects onto the fracture surfaces is provided. In such cases, an approach based on a so-called cyclic R-curve analysis is proposed for the determination of the initial flaw size, which has to be used in the calculation of fatigue crack propagation. The principle is explained and demonstrated by a first application to a welded joint.

An analytical fracture mechanics model for predicting the finite life fatigue strength of components is presented which Combines a number of well established and newly developed approaches such as Murakami’s and McEvily's approach for describing the transient behaviour of crack closure of short cracks, the analytical (long) crack closure function of Newman, the R6 procedure modified by a method for improving the ligament yielding correction proposed by the authors and other elements. Basic assumption is the preexistence of initial flaws such that the crack initiation or nucleation stage is small and can be neglected. The application of the model is demonstrated for small tension plates of aluminium Al 5380 H321 with artificial initial defects generated by FIB technology, the size of which was fixed on the basis of fractographic investigations on broken, smooth specimens.

Die Sicherheit von Radsatzwellen beruht gegenwärtig auf zwei Säulen: der Schwingfestigkeitsauslegung und periodischen Inspektionen. Ausgehend von einem Schadensfall, der gebrochenen ICE 3-Welle von Köln, 2008, sollen ausgewählte Aspekte beider Säulen diskutiert und Vorschläge zur weiteren Verbesserung gemacht werden. Diese betreffen u.a. Fragen einer Betriebszeitbegrenzung, Veränderungen der Schwingfestigkeit während des Betriebs infolge von Korrosion und Steinschlag, den Einfluss von Korrosion auf Schwingrissinitiierung und -fortschritt, den potentiellen Einfluss nichtmetallischer Einschlüsse auf die Schwingfestigkeit, die Möglichkeiten sie im Rahmen der Qualitätssicherung zu detektieren sowie Fragen der Bruchmechanik und der Zuverlässigkeit zerstörungsfreier Schwingriss-Prüfverfahren im Rahmen eines Konzepts regelmäßiger Inspektionen.

Recently two of the authors of the present paper proposed a model for a fracture mechanics
based prediction of the S–N characteristics of metallic components with large microstructural
defects and supported this by a validation exercise on tensile plates made of an aluminium
alloy AL5380 H321. Here the authors extend the study using a number of further
data sets from the literature for which data were available at different R ratios. These data
include two aluminium alloys, Al 2024-T3 and Al 7075-T6, and a ductile cast iron, EN-GJS-
400-18-LT. Despite of necessary assumptions for the compensation of partially missing
input information the results were fairly reasonable with the exception of one data set.
The authors identify high applied stress levels in combination with potential multiple crack
initiation as the probable root of the problem and propose a scheme how the model can be
extended for taking into account crack initiation.

The determination of the fatigue life in technical alloys containing large and small defects must rely on a propagation model which accounts for short and long crack growth. Recently an analytical model which incorporates propagation in the short crack regime and plastic correction for the crack driving force has been presented by two of the authors.
This work is intended to show further validation of the model, taking into account data sets for different materials with different testing conditions.
Despite the assumptions about missing parameters, the value of which had to be taken from the literature, the predictions showed a fairly good approximation of the fatigue lives. A possible interpretation of the results in terms of multiple crack initiation and propagation at higher loads is proposed.

The idea to determine the fatigue strength of weldments by means fracture mechanics was originally based on the empirical observation that the major portion of the fatigue life in weldments is frequently spent in crack propagation. The present paper gives a brief overview on the basic principles of fracture mechanics-based determination of fatigue strength and on special features which have to be considered for weldments. Based on this information, the ongoing research project IBESS is introduced and briefly reviewed.