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#### Organisationseinheit der BAM

- 7.2 Ingenieurbau (24) (entfernen)

Vibration-based structural health monitoring of a wind turbine system. Part I: Resonance phenomenon
(2015)

This paper is focused on a resonance phenomenon of a wind turbine system in 5 MW class, on the basis of dynamic signals acquired continuously from the tubular tower under normal operational conditions during two years.
Firstly, technique specifications of the wind turbine system are introduced and a finite element model is developed to characterize the structural dynamic properties. The following part describes the continuous dynamic monitoring system integrated with an automated operational modal analysis procedure using the poly-reference Least Squares Complex Frequency domain (p-LSCF) method. Subsequently, variations and mutual relationships of environmental/operational factors such as vibration amplitude, temperature, wind speed, rotation speed of blades, pitch angle and nacelle direction are also presented. Finally, significant resonance is observed due to the fundamental frequency of the tower matching with the harmonic frequency induced by the rotation of three blades. As the rotation speed of rotor approaches to 8 rpm, the vibration amplitude of the tower increases significantly and the corresponding damping value decreases. With the further rising wind velocity, the rotation speed of blades stops increasing and the input energy just contribute to accumulate the vibration amplitude of tower. Such observation indicates the Sommerfeld effect that aggravates the resonance phenomenon. A vibration control device is necessary to minimize the excessive structural responses.
A companion paper will further discuss the environmental/operational effects on dynamic properties of the wind turbine system under the operational conditions.

The second part of these companion papers mainly researches environmental/operational influences on structural dynamic properties under normal operational conditions during two years, in order to extract a statistical based damage-sensitive indicator for health monitoring of a wind turbine system.
The correlation analyses between experimental identified frequencies, damping values as well as mode shapes and environmental/operational factors such as rotation speed of blades, wind speed, pitch angle, temperature and nacelle direction are presented. It is observed that the frequency estimates are influenced by the nacelle position, the activation of rotor, the rotation speed of blades and the wind speed as well as the temperature. Regarding to the damping estimates, they are mainly associated with variation of the aerodynamic damping due to the increasing wind speed. Besides, the resonance phenomenon is also observed in higher modes. The harmonic frequencies due to blades passing by tower are found and the corresponding damping value decreases. Moreover, the mode shapes in some modes are strongly affected by the position of the nacelle.
Subsequently, two types of simulated damage including the reduction of stiffness in both the rotor blade and the tubular tower are successfully detected by applying the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) based methods to these temperature-sensitive frequency estimates. Comparison of change of the extracted health features indicates that they are more sensitive with the tower damage.

A prototype of wind turbines in 5 megawatt dass was built and tested at the first German offshore wind energy test fteld in the North Sea. In order to investigate dynamic behaviors under a complex state of loads, a continuous dynamic monitoring System was implemented by Federal Institute for Material Research and Testing (BAM). It recorded structural responses and environmental/operational variables from November 2007 to October 2009.
This paper presents significant resonance phenomenon due to the interaction in the tower-nacelle System under operational conditions. Modal parameters are automatically estimated by the poly reference Least Square Complex Frequency domain (p-LSCF) method. Campbell plot demonstrates that a three-blade passage frequency and its multiples f3n match with the natural frequencies of the wind turbine System in several modal Orders. The damping estimates decrease and the Vibration amplitude increase significantly. A control System is necessary to minimize the excessive vibrations.

This paper addresses the quantification of the value of damage detection system and algorithm information on the basis of Value of Information (VoI) analysis to enhance the benefit of damage detection information by providing the basis for its optimization before it is performed and implemented. The approach of the quantification the value of damage detection information builds upon the Bayesian decision theory facilitating the utilization of damage detection performance models, which describe the information and its precision on structural system level, facilitating actions to ensure the structural integrity and facilitating to describe the structural system performance and its functionality throughout the service life. The structural system performance is described with its functionality, its deterioration and its behavior under extreme loading. The structural system reliability given the damage detection information is determined utilizing Bayesian updating. The damage detection performance is described with the probability of indication for different component and system damage states taking into account type 1 and type 2 errors. The value of damage detection information is then calculated as the difference between the expected benefits and risks utilizing the damage detection information or not. With an application example of the developed approach based on a deteriorating Pratt truss system, the value of damage detection information is determined,demonstrating the potential of risk reduction and expected cost reduction.