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- EBSD (10)
- Orientation precision (3)
- Electron backscatter diffraction (2)
- Electron energy (2)
- Energy distribution (2)
- Kikuchi pattern (2)
- Quasicrystal (2)
- Scanning electron microscopy (2)
- Simulation (2)
- Angle measurement (1)

#### Organisationseinheit der BAM

The investigation of the microstructure in functional, polycrystalline thin films is an important contribution to the enhanced understanding of structure–property relationships in corresponding devices. Linear and planar defects within individual grains may affect substantially the performance of the device. These defects are closely related to strain distributions. The present work compares electron and X-ray diffraction as well as Raman microspectroscopy, which provide access to microstrain distributions within individual grains. CuInSe₂ thin films or solar cells are used as a modelsystem. High-resolution electron backscatter diffraction and X-ray microdiffraction as well as Ramanmicrospectroscopy were applied for this comparison. Consistently, microstrain values were determined of the order of 10⁻⁴ by these three techniques. However,only electron backscatter diffraction, X-ray microdiffraction exhibit sensitivities appropriate for mapping local strain changes at the submicrometer level within individual grains in polycrystalline materials.

Advanced structural characterisation techniques which are rapid to use, non-destructive and structurally definitive on the nanoscale are in demand, especially for a detailed understanding of extended-defects and their influence on the properties of materials. We have applied the electron
backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique in a scanning electron microscope to non-destructively
characterise and quantify antiphase domains (APDs) in GaP thin films grown on different (001)Si substrates with different offcuts. We were able to image and quantify APDs by relating the asymmetrical intensity distributions observed in the EBSD patterns acquired experimentally and comparing the same with the dynamical electron diffraction simulations. Additionally mean angular error maps were also plotted using automated cross-correlation based approaches to image APDs.
Samples grown on substrates with a 4° offcut from the [110] do not show any APDs, whereas samples grown on the exactly oriented substrates contain APDs. The procedures described in our work can be
adopted for characterising a wide range of other material systems possessing non-centrosymmetric point groups.

We analyse the signal formation process for scanning electron microscopic imaging applications on crystalline specimens. In accordance with previous investigations, we find nontrivial effects of incident beam diffraction on the backscattered electron distribution in energy and momentum. Specifically, incident beam diffraction causes angular changes of the backscattered electron distribution which we identify as the dominant mechanism underlying pseudocolour orientation imaging using multiple, angle-resolving detectors. Consequently, diffraction effects of the incident beam and their impact on the subsequent coherent and incoherent electron transport need to be taken into account for an in-depth theoretical modelling of the energy- and momentum distribution of electrons backscattered from crystalline sample regions. Our findings have implications for the level of theoretical detail that can be necessary for the interpretation of complex imaging modalities such as electron channelling contrast imaging (ECCI) of defects in crystals. If the solid angle of detection is limited to specific regions of the backscattered electron momentum distribution, the image contrast that is observed in ECCI and similar applications can be strongly affected by incident beam diffraction and topographic effects from the sample surface. As an application, we demonstrate characteristic changes in the resulting images if different properties of the backscattered electron distribution are used for the analysis of a GaN thin film sample containing dislocations.

For the precise determination of orientations in polycrystalline materials, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) requires a consistent calibration of the diffraction geometry in the scanning electron microscope (SEM). In the present paper, the variation of the projection center for the Kikuchi diffraction patterns which are measured by EBSD is calibrated using a projective transformation model for the SEM beam scan positions on the sample. Based on a full pattern matching approach between simulated and experimental Kikuchi patterns, individual projection center estimates are determined on a subgrid of the EBSD map, from which least-square fits to affine and projective transformations can be obtained. Reference measurements on single-crystalline silicon are used to quantify the orientation errors which result from different calibration models for the variation of the projection center.

Orientation determination does not necessarily require complete knowledge of the local atomic arrangement in a crystalline phase. We present a method for microstructural phase discrimination and orientation analysis of phases for which there is only limited crystallographic information available. In this method, experimental Kikuchi diffraction patterns are utilized to generate a self-consistent master reference for use in the technique of Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD). The experimentally derived master data serves as an application-specific reference in EBSD pattern matching approaches. As application examples, we map the locally varying orientations in samples of icosahedral quasicrystals observed in a Ti40Zr40Ni20 alloy, and we analyse AlNiCo decagonal quasicrystals.

A historical tool for crystallographic analysis is provided by the Hilton net, which can be used for manually surveying the crystal lattice as it is manifested by the Kikuchi bands in a gnomonic projection. For a quantitative analysis using the Hilton net, the projection centre as the relative position of the signal source with respect to the detector plane needs to be known. Interplanar angles are accessible with a precision and accuracy which is estimated to be ≤0.3o. Angles between any directions, e.g. zone axes, are directly readable. Finally, for the rare case of an unknown projection-centre position, its determination is demonstrated by adapting an old approach developed for photogrammetric applications.
It requires the indexing of four zone axes [uvw]i in a backscattered Kikuchi diffraction pattern of a known phase collected under comparable geometric conditions.

Approximant-based orientation determination of quasicrystals using electron backscatter diffraction
(2020)

Orientation mapping of quasicrystalline materials is demonstrated using crystalline approximant structures in the technique of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The approximant-based orientations are symmetrised according to the rotational point group of the quasicrystal, including the visualization of orientation maps using proper colour keys for quasicrystal symmetries. Alternatively, approximant-based orientation data can also be treated using pseudosymmetry post-processing options in the EBSD system software, which enables basic grain size estimations. Approximant-based orientation analyses are demonstrated for icosahedral and decagonal quasicrystals.

We describe a lattice-based crystallographic approximation for the analysis of distorted crystal structures via Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) in the scanning electron microscope. EBSD patterns are closely linked to local lattice parameter ratios via Kikuchi bands that indicate geometrical lattice plane projections. Based on the transformation properties of points and lines in the real projective plane, we can obtain continuous estimations of the local lattice distortion based on projectively transformed Kikuchi diffraction simulations for a reference structure. By quantitative image matching to a projective transformation model of the lattice distortion in the full solid angle of possible scattering directions, we enforce a crystallographically consistent approximation in the fitting procedure of distorted simulations to the experimentally observed diffraction patterns. As an application example, we map the locally varying tetragonality in martensite grains of steel.

Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) is a technique to obtain microcrystallographic information from materials by collecting large-angle Kikuchi patterns in the scanning electron microscope (SEM). An important fundamental question concerns the scattering-angle dependent electron energy distribution, which is relevant for the formation of the Kikuchi diffraction patterns. Here we review the existing experimental data and explore the effective energy spectrum that is operative in the generation of backscatter Kikuchi patterns from silicon. We use a full pattern comparison of experimental data with dynamical electron diffraction simulations. Our energy-dependent cross-correlation based pattern matching approach establishes improved constraints on the effective Kikuchi pattern energy spectrum, which is relevant for high-resolution EBSD pattern simulations and their applications.