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Consolidation of commodities and coordination of vehicle routes are fundamental features of supply chain management problems. While locations for consolidation and coordination are typically known a priori, in adaptive transportation networks this is not the case. The identification of such consolidation locations forms part of the decision making process. Supply chain management problems integrating the designation of consolidation locations with the coordination of long haul and local vehicle routing is not only challenging to solve, but also very difficult to formulate mathematically. In this paper, the first mathematical model integrating location clustering with long haul and local vehicle routing is proposed. This mathematical formulation is used to develop algorithms to find high quality solutions. A novel parallel framework is developed that combines exact and heuristic methods to improve the search for high quality solutions and provide valid bounds. The results demonstrate that using exact methods to guide heuristic search is an effective approach to find high quality solutions for difficult supply chain management problems.

大規模二次割当問題への挑戦
(2022)

For cryptanalysis in lattice-based schemes, the performance evaluation of lattice basis reduction using high-performance computers is becoming increasingly important for the determination of the security level. We propose a distributed and asynchronous parallel reduction algorithm based on randomization and DeepBKZ, which is an improved variant of the block Korkine-Zolotarev (BKZ) reduction algorithm. Randomized copies of a lattice basis are distributed to up to 103,680 cores and independently reduced in parallel, while some basis vectors are shared asynchronously among all processes via MPI. There is a trade-off between randomization and information sharing; if a substantial amount of information is shared, all processes will work on the same problem, thereby diminishing the benefit of parallelization. To monitor this balance between randomness and sharing, we propose a metric to quantify the variety of lattice bases. We empirically find an optimal parameter of sharing for high-dimensional lattices. We demonstrate the efficacy of our proposed parallel algorithm and implementation with respect to both performance and scalability through our experiments.

Lattice problems are a class of optimization problems that are notably hard. There are no classical or quantum algorithms known to solve these problems efficiently. Their hardness has made lattices a major cryptographic primitive for post-quantum cryptography. Several different approaches have been used for lattice problems with different computational profiles; some suffer from super-exponential time, and others require exponential space. This motivated us to develop a novel lattice problem solver, CMAP-LAP, based on the clever coordination of different algorithms that run massively in parallel. With our flexible framework, heterogeneous modules run asynchronously in parallel on a large-scale distributed system while exchanging information, which drastically boosts the overall performance. We also implement full checkpoint-and-restart functionality, which is vital to high-dimensional lattice problems. Through numerical experiments with up to 103,680 cores, we evaluated the performance and stability of our system and demonstrated its high capability for future massive-scale experiments.

Calculation of clinch and elimination numbers for sports leagues with multiple tiebreaking criteria
(2018)

The clinch (elimination) number is a minimal number of future wins (losses) needed to clinch (to be eliminated from) a specified place in a sports league. Several optimization models and computational results are shown in this paper for calculating clinch and elimination numbers in the presence of predefined multiple tiebreaking criteria. The main subject of this paper is to provide a general algorithmic framework based on integer programming with utilizing possibly multilayered upper and lower bounds.

Optimization models often feature disjunctions of polytopes as
submodels. Such a disjunctive set is initially (at best) relaxed to
its convex hull, which is then refined by branching.
To measure the error of the convex relaxation, the (relative)
difference between the volume of the convex hull and the volume of the
disjunctive set may be used. This requires a method to compute the
volume of the disjunctive set. Naively, this can be done via
inclusion/exclusion and leveraging the existing code for the volume
of polytopes. However, this is often inefficient.
We propose a revised variant of an old algorithm by Bieri and Nef
(1983) for this purpose. The algorithm uses a sweep-plane to
incrementally calculate the volume of the disjunctive set as a
function of the offset parameter of the sweep-plane.

Mixed integer linear programming (MIP) is a general form to model combinatorial optimization problems and has many industrial applications. The performance of MIP solvers has improved tremendously in the last two decades and these solvers have been used to solve many real-word problems. However, against the backdrop of modern computer technology, parallelization is of pivotal importance. In this way, ParaSCIP is the most successful parallel MIP solver in terms of solving previously unsolvable instances from the well-known benchmark instance set MIPLIB by using supercomputers. It solved two instances from MIPLIB2003 and 12 from MIPLIB2010 for the first time to optimality by using up to 80,000 cores on supercomputers. ParaSCIP has been developed by using the Ubiquity Generator (UG) framework, which is a general software package to parallelize any state-of-the-art branch-and-bound based solver. This paper discusses 7 years of progress in parallelizing branch-and-bound solvers with UG.

PIPS-SBB is a distributed-memory parallel solver with a scalable data distribution paradigm. It is designed to solve MIPs with a dual-block angular structure, which is characteristic of deterministic-equivalent Stochastic Mixed-Integer Programs (SMIPs). In this paper, we present two different parallelizations of Branch & Bound (B&B), implementing both as extensions of PIPS-SBB, thus adding an additional layer of parallelism. In the first of the proposed frameworks, PIPS-PSBB, the coordination and load-balancing of the different optimization workers is done in a decentralized fashion. This new framework is designed to ensure all available cores are processing the most promising parts of the B&B tree. The second, ug[PIPS-SBB,MPI], is a parallel implementation using the Ubiquity Generator (UG), a universal framework for parallelizing B&B tree search that has been successfully applied to other MIP solvers. We show the effects of leveraging multiple levels of parallelism in potentially improving scaling performance beyond thousands of cores.

We find previously unknown families which imply Frankl’s conjecture using an algorithmic framework. The conjecture states that for any non-empty union-closed (or Frankl) family there exists an element in at least half of the sets. Poonen’s Theorem characterizes the existence of weights which determine whether a given Frankl family implies the conjecture for all Frankl families which contain it. A Frankl family is Non–Frankl-Complete (Non–FC), if it does not imply the conjecture in its elements for some Frankl family that contains it. We design a cutting-plane method that computes the explicit weights which imply the existence conditions of Poonen’s Theorem. This method allows us to find a counterexample to a ten-year-old conjecture by R. Morris about the structure of generators for Non–FC-families.