## 90B20 Traffic problems

### Refine

#### Year of publication

#### Document Type

- ZIB-Report (22)
- Doctoral Thesis (2)

#### Keywords

- Optimierung (7)
- integer programming (4)
- Linienplanung (3)
- Nahverkehr (3)
- combinatorial optimization (3)
- duty scheduling (3)
- line planning (3)
- transfers (3)
- vehicle scheduling (3)
- Dienstplanung (2)

#### Institute

Wir beschreiben einen Ansatz zur integrierten Umlauf- und Dienstplanung im öffentlichen Nahverkehr. Der Ansatz zielt auf die Verbesserung des Gesamtwirkungsgrades dieser beiden Planungsschritte und auf die besondere Planungsproblematik im Regionalverkehr. Wir entwickeln dazu mathematische Optimierungstechniken für den Einsatz in den Planungssystemen MICROBUS II und DIVA.

This article proposes a Lagrangean relaxation approach to solve integrated duty and vehicle scheduling problems arising in public transport. The approach is based on the proximal bundle method for the solution of concave decomposable functions, which is adapted for the approximate evaluation of the vehicle and duty scheduling components. The primal and dual information generated by the bundle method is used to guide a branch-and-bound type algorithm. Computational results for large-scale real-world integrated vehicle and duty scheduling problems with up to 1,500 timetabled trips are reported. Compared with the results of a classical sequential approach and with reference solutions, integrated scheduling offers remarkable potentials in savings and drivers' satisfaction.

Can OR methods help the public transport industry to break even? The article gives evidence that there exist significant potentials in this direction, which can be harnessed by a combination of modern mathematical methods and local planning knowledge. Many of the planning steps in public transport are classical combinatorial problems, which can be solved in unprecedented size and quality due the rapid progress in large-scale optimization. Three examples on vehicle scheduling, duty scheduling, and integrated vehicle and duty scheduling illustrate the level that has been reached and the improvements that can be achieved today. Extensions of such methods to further questions of strategic, online, and market-oriented planning are currently investigated. In this way, OR can make a significant contribution to answer the basic but extremely difficult question ``What is a good public transport network?.

In this paper we introduce the fare planning problem for public transport which consists in designing a system of fares maximizing revenue. We propose a new simple general model for this problem. It i s based on a demand function and constraints for the different fares. The constraints define the structure of the fare system, e.g., distance dependent fares or zone fares. We discuss a simple example with a quadratic demand function and distance dependent fares. Then we introduce a more realistic discrete choice model in which passengers choose between different alternatives depending on the numb er of trips per month. We demonstrate the examples by computational experiments.

The \emph{fare planning problem} for public transport is to design a system of fares that maximize the revenue. We introduce a nonlinear optimization model to approach this problem. It is based on a d iscrete choice logit model that expresses demand as a function of the fares. We illustrate our approach by computing and comparing two different fare systems for the intercity network of the Netherlands.

The timetable is the essence of the service offered by any provider of public transport'' (Jonathan Tyler, CASPT 2006). Indeed, the timetable has a major impact on both operating costs and on passenger comfort. Most European agglomerations and railways use periodic timetables in which operation repeats in regular intervals. In contrast, many North and South American municipalities use trip timetables in which the vehicle trips are scheduled individually subject to frequency constraints. We compare these two strategies with respect to vehicle operation costs. It turns out that for short time horizons, periodic timetabling can be suboptimal; for sufficiently long time horizons, however, periodic timetabling can always be done in an optimal way'.

This thesis describes the algorithm IS-OPT that integrates scheduling of vehicles and duties in public bus transit. IS-OPT is the first algorithm which solves integrated vehicle and duty scheduling problems arising in medium sized carriers such that its solutions can be used in daily operations without further adaptions. This thesis is structured as follows: The first chapter highlights mathematical models of the planning process of public transit companies and examines their potential for integrating them with other planning steps. It also introduces descriptions of the vehicle and the duty scheduling problem. Chapter 2 motivates why it can be useful to integrate vehicle and duty scheduling, explains approaches of the literature, and gives an outline of our algorithm IS-OPT. The following chapters go into the details of the most important techniques and methods of IS-OPT: In Chapter 3 we describe how we use Lagrangean relaxation in a column generation framework. Next, in Chapter 4, we describe a variant of the proximal bundle method (PBM) that is used to approximate linear programs occurring in the solution process. We introduce here a new variant of the PBM which is able to utilize inexact function evaluation and the use of epsilon-subgradients. We also show the convergence of this method under certain assumptions. Chapter 5 treats the generation of duties for the duty scheduling problem. This problem is modeled as a resourceconstraint- shortest-path-problem with non-linear side constraints and nearly linear objective function. It is solved in a two-stage approach. At first we calculate lower bounds on the reduced costs of duties using certain nodes by a new inexact label-setting algorithm. Then we use these bounds to speed up a depth-first-search algorithm that finds feasible duties. In Chapter 6 we present the primal heuristic of IS-OPT that solves the integrated problem to integrality. We introduce a new branch-and-bound based heuristic which we call rapid branching. Rapid branching uses the proximal bundle method to compute lower bounds, it introduces a heuristic node selection scheme, and it utilizes a new branching rule that fixes sets of many variables at once. The common approach to solve the problems occurring in IS-OPT is to trade inexactness of the solutions for speed of the algorithms. This enables, as we show in Chapter 7, to solve large real world integrated problems by IS-OPT. The scheduled produced by IS-OPT save up to 5% of the vehicle and duty cost of existing schedules of regional and urban public transport companies.

The optimization of fare systems in public transit allows to pursue objectives such as the maximization of demand, revenue, profit, or social welfare. We propose a non-linear optimization approach to fare planning that is based on a detailed discrete choice model of user behavior. The approach allows to analyze different fare structures, optimization objectives, and operational scenarios involving, e.g., subsidies. We use the resulting models to compute optimized fare systems for the city of Potsdam, Germany.

Die Angebotsplanung im öffentlichen Nahverkehr umfasst die Aufgaben der Netz-, Linien-,Fahr- und Preisplanung. Wir stellen zwei mathematische Optimierungsmodelle zur Linien- und Preisplanung vor. Wir zeigen anhand von Berechnungen für die Verkehrsbetriebe in Potsdam(ViP), dass sich damit komplexe Zusammenhänge quantitativ analysieren lassen. Auf diese Weise untersuchen wir die Auswirkungen von Freiheitsgraden auf die Konstruktion von Linien und die Wahl von Reisewegen der Passagiere, Abhängigkeiten zwischen Kosten und Reisezeiten sowie den Einfluss verschiedener Preissysteme auf Nachfrage und Kostendeckung.

The mathematical treatment of planning problems in public transit has made significant advances in the last decade. Among others, the classical problems of vehicle and crew scheduling can nowadays be solved on a routine basis using combinatorial optimization methods. This is not yet the case for problems that pertain to the design of public transit networks, and for the problems of operations control that address the implementation of a schedule in the presence of disturbances. The article gives a sketch of the state and important developments in these areas, and it addresses important challenges. The vision is that mathematical tools of computer aided scheduling (CAS) will soon play a similar role in the design and operation of public transport systems as CAD systems in manufacturing.