## 90-04 Explicit machine computation and programs (not the theory of computation or programming)

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- Integer Programming (2)
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The benefits of cutting planes based on the perspective function are well known for many specific classes of mixed-integer nonlinear programs with on/off structures. However, we are not aware of any empirical studies that evaluate their applicability and computational impact over large, heterogeneous test sets in general-purpose solvers. This paper provides a detailed computational study of perspective cuts within a linear programming based branch-and-cut solver for general mixed-integer nonlinear programs. Within this study, we extend the applicability of perspective cuts from convex to nonconvex nonlinearities. This generalization is achieved by applying a perspective strengthening to valid linear inequalities which separate solutions of linear relaxations. The resulting method can be applied to any constraint where all variables appearing in nonlinear terms are semi-continuous and depend on at least one common indicator variable. Our computational experiments show that adding perspective cuts for convex constraints yields a consistent improvement of performance, and adding perspective cuts for nonconvex constraints reduces branch-and-bound tree sizes and strengthens the root node relaxation, but has no significant impact on the overall mean time.

Mixed integer programming has become a very powerful tool for modeling and
solving real-world planning and scheduling problems, with the breadth of
applications appearing to be almost unlimited. A critical component in
the solution of these mixed-integer programs is a set of routines commonly
referred to as presolve. Presolve can be viewed as a collection of
preprocessing techniques that reduce the size of and, more importantly,
improve the ``strength'' of the given model formulation, that is, the degree
to which the constraints of the formulation accurately describe the
underlying polyhedron of integer-feasible solutions. As our computational
results will show, presolve is a key factor in the speed with which we can
solve mixed-integer programs, and is often the difference between a model
being intractable and solvable, in some cases easily solvable. In this
paper we describe the presolve functionality in the Gurobi commercial
mixed-integer programming code.
This includes an overview, or taxonomy of the different methods that are
employed, as well as more-detailed descriptions of several of the techniques,
with some of them appearing, to our knowledge, for the first time in the
literature.

Presolving attempts to eliminate redundant information from the problem formulation and simultaneously tries to strengthen the formulation. It can be very effective and is often essential for solving instances. Especially for mixed integer programming problems, fast and effective presolving algorithms are very important. In this paper, we report on three new presolving techniques. The first method searches for singleton continuous columns and tries to fix the corresponding variables. Then we present a presolving technique which exploits a partial order of the variables to induce fixings. Finally, we show an approach based on connected components in graphs. Our computational results confirm the profitable use of the algorithms in practice.

We address the property checking problem for SoC design verification at the register transfer level (RTL) by integrating techniques from integer programming, constraint programming, and SAT solving. Specialized domain propagation and preprocessing algorithms for individual RTL operations extend a general constraint integer programming framework. Conflict clauses are learned by analyzing infeasible LPs and deductions, and by employing reverse propagation. Experimental results show that our approach outperforms SAT techniques for proving the validity of properties on circuits containing arithmetics.

Modern applications of mathematical programming must take into account a multitude of technical details, business demands, and legal requirements. Teaching the mathematical modeling of such issues and their interrelations requires real-world examples that are well beyond the toy sizes that can be tackled with the student editions of most commercial software packages. We present a new tool, which is freely available for academic use including complete source code. It consists of an algebraic modeling language and a linear mixed integer programming solver. The performance and features of the tool are in the range of current state-of-the-art commercial tools, though not in all aspects as good as the best ones. Our tool does allow the execution and analysis of large real-world instances in the classroom and can therefore enhance the teaching of problem solving issues. Teaching experience has been gathered and practical usability was tested in classes at several universities and a two week intensive block course at TU Berlin. The feedback from students and teachers has been very positive.

Constraint Programs and Mixed Integer Programs are closely related optimization problems originating from different scientific areas. Today's state-of-the-art algorithms of both fields have several strategies in common, in particular the branch-and-bound process to recursively divide the problem into smaller sub problems. On the other hand, the main techniques to process each sub problem are different, and it was observed that they have complementary strenghts. We propose a programming framework {\sffamily SCIP} that integrates techniques from both fields in order to exploit the strenghts of both, Constraint Programming and Mixed Integer Programming. In contrast to other proposals of recent years to combine both fields, {\sffamily SCIP} does not focus on easy implementation and rapid prototyping, but is tailored towards expert users in need of full, in-depth control and high performance.

ZIMPL User Guide
(2001)

\texttt{SBmethod}, Version 1.1, is an implementation of the spectral bundle method for eigenvalue optimization problems of the form \begin{displaymath} \min_{y\in \mathbf{R}^m}\;\; a\;\lambda_{\max}(C-\sum_{i=1}^{m} A_i y_i)+b^Ty. \end{displaymath} The design variables $y_i$ may be sign constrained, $C$ and and $A_i$ are given real symmetric matrices, $b\in\mathbf{R}^m$ allows to specify a linear cost term, and $a>0$ is a constant multiplier for the maximum eigenvalue function $\lambda_{\max}(\cdot)$. The code is intended for large scale problems and allows to exploit structural properties of the matrices such as sparsity and low rank structure. The manual contains instructions for installation and use of the program. It describes in detail input format, options, and output. The meaning of the variables and parameters is made precise by relating them to a mathematical description of the algorithm in pseudocode.