## 81Q20 Semiclassical techniques, including WKB and Maslov methods

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- quantum-classical molecular dynamics (2)
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We compute expectation values for the solution of the nuclear Schrödinger equation. The proposed particle method consists of three steps: sampling of the initial Wigner function, classical transport of the sampling points, weighted phase space summation for the final computation of the expectation values. The Egorov theorem guarantees that the algorithm is second order accurate with respect to the semiclassical parameter. We present numerical experiments for a two-dimensional torsional potential with three different sets of initial data and for a six-dimensional Henon-Heiles potential. By construction, the computing times scale linearly with the number of initial sampling points and range between three seconds and one hour.

In molecular dynamics applications there is a growing interest in mixed quantum-classical models. The {\em quantum-classical Liouville equation} (QCL) describes most atoms of the molecular system under consideration by means of classical phase space density but an important, small portion of the system by means of quantum mechanics. The QCL is derived from the full quantum dynamical (QD) description by applying the Wigner transform to the classical part'' of the system only. We discuss the conditions under which the QCL model approximates the full QD evolution of the system. First, analysis of the asymptotic properties of the Wigner transform shows that solving the QCL yields a first order approximation of full quantum dynamics. Second, we discuss the adiabatic limit of the QCL. This discussion shows that the QCL solutions may be interpretated as classical phase space densities, at least near the adiabatic limit. Third, it is demonstrated that the QCL yields good approximations of {\em non-adiabatic quantum effects,} especially near so-called {\em avoided crossings} where most quantum-classical models fail.

In molecular dynamics applications there is a growing interest in mixed quantum-classical models. The article is concerned with the so-called QCMD model. This model describes most atoms of the molecular system by the means of classical mechanics but an important, small portion of the system by the means of a wavefunction. We review the conditions under which the QCMD model is known to approximate the full quantum dynamical evolution of the system. In most quantum-classical simulations the {\em Born-Oppenheimer model} (BO) is used. In this model, the wavefunction is adiabatically coupled to the classical motion which leads to serious approximation deficiencies with respect to non-adiabatic effects in the fully quantum dynamical description of the system. In contrast to the BO model, the QCMD model does include non-adiabatic processes, e.g., transitions between the energy levels of the quantum system. It is demonstrated that, in mildly non-adiabatic scenarios, so-called {\em surface hopping} extensions of QCMD simulations yield good approximations of the non-adiabatic effects in full quantum dynamics. The algorithmic strategy of such extensions of QCMD is explained and the crucial steps of its realization are discussed with special emphasis on the numerical problems caused by highly oscillatory phase effects.

Mixed quantum--classical models have attracted considerable interest due to the expectation that they correctly describe non--adiabatic processes of full quantum dynamics. One of these models, the so--called QCMD model, represents most degrees of freedom of the molecular system by the means of classical mechanics but an important, small portion of the system is modeled by a wavefunction: the wavefunction is nonlinearly coupled to the classical motion via a singularly perturbed Schrödinger equation. In extension to the analysis given by F.A.~Bornemann [{\em Homogenization in Time of Singularly Perturbed Mechanical Systems}, Lecture Notes in Mathematics, no.~1687, 1998, Springer, Berlin], the article presents an asymptotic expansion up to second order in the perturbation parameter. This result allows for the construction of new models and numerical integration schemes.