## 68-XX COMPUTER SCIENCE (For papers involving machine computations and programs in a specific mathematical area, see Section -04 in that area)

### Refine

#### Year of publication

#### Document Type

- ZIB-Report (37)
- Master's Thesis (3)
- Article (2)
- Bachelor's Thesis (1)

#### Keywords

- Convex Optimization (2)
- MSM (2)
- Reversible Markov Chain (2)
- 2-photon microscopy (1)
- ADOL-C (1)
- Adaptive Importance Sampling (1)
- Automatic differentiation (1)
- Bayesian inverse problem (1)
- Branch and Bound (1)
- Branchwidth (1)

#### Institute

- Mathematical Optimization (23)
- Visual Data Analysis (9)
- Mathematics of Telecommunication (7)
- Numerical Mathematics (5)
- Distributed Algorithms and Supercomputing (4)
- Mathematical Optimization Methods (3)
- Computational Molecular Design (2)
- Image Analysis in Biology and Materials Science (2)
- Scientific Information (2)
- Visual Data Analysis in Science and Engineering (2)

Mixed-integer programming (MIP) problem is arguably among the hardest classes of optimization problems. This paper describes how we solved 21 previously unsolved MIP instances from the MIPLIB benchmark sets. To achieve these results we used an enhanced version of ParaSCIP, setting a new record for the largest scale MIP computation: up to 80,000 cores in parallel on the Titan supercomputer. In this paper, we describe the basic parallelization mechanism of ParaSCIP, improvements of the dynamic load balancing and novel techniques to exploit the power of parallelization for MIP solving. We give a detailed overview of computing times and statistics for solving open MIPLIB instances.

Public transportation networks are typically operated with a periodic timetable. The Periodic Event Scheduling Problem (PESP) is the standard mathematical modelling tool for periodic timetabling. Since PESP can be solved in linear time on trees, it is a natural question to ask whether there are polynomial-time algorithms for input networks of bounded treewidth. We show that deciding the feasibility of a PESP instance is NP-hard even when the treewidth is 2, the branchwidth is 2, or the carvingwidth is 3. Analogous results hold for the optimization of reduced PESP instances, where the feasibility problem is trivial. To complete the picture, we present two pseudo-polynomial-time dynamic programming algorithms solving PESP on input networks with bounded tree- or branchwidth. We further analyze the parameterized complexity of PESP with bounded cyclomatic number, diameter, or vertex cover number. For event-activity networks with a special -- but standard -- structure, we give explicit and sharp bounds on the branchwidth in terms of the maximum degree and the carvingwidth of an underlying line network. Finally, we investigate several parameters on the smallest instance of the benchmarking library PESPlib.

In a recent paper, Conte et al. [CGMR2017] presented an algorithm for enumerating all acyclic orientations of a graph G=(V,E) with a single source (and related orientations) with delay O(|V||E|). In this paper we revisit the problem by going back to an early paper by de Fraysseix et al. [FMR1995], who proposed an algorithm for enumerating all bipolar orientations of a graph based on a recursion formula. We first formalize de Fraysseix et al.'s algorithm for bipolar orientations and determine that its delay is also O(|V||E|). We then apply their recursion formula to the case of Conte et al.'s enumeration problem and show that this yields a more efficient enumeration algorithm with delay O(\sqrt(|V|)|E|). Finally, a way to further streamline the algorithm that leads to a particularly simple implementation is suggested.

Following axon pathfinding, growth cones transition from stochastic filopodial exploration to the formation of a limited number of synapses. How the interplay of filopodia and synapse assembly ensures robust connectivity in the brain has remained a challenging problem. Here, we developed a new 4D analysis method for filopodial dynamics and a data-driven computational model of synapse formation for R7 photoreceptor axons in developing Drosophila brains. Our live data support a 'serial synapse formation' model, where at any time point only a single 'synaptogenic' filopodium suppresses the synaptic competence of other filopodia through competition for synaptic seeding factors. Loss of the synaptic seeding factors Syd-1 and Liprin-α leads to a loss of this suppression, filopodial destabilization and reduced synapse formation, which is sufficient to cause the destabilization of entire axon terminals. Our model provides a filopodial 'winner-takes-all' mechanism that ensures the formation of an appropriate number of synapses.

SCIP-JACK is a customized, branch-and-cut based solver for Steiner tree and related problems. ug [SCIP-JACK, MPI] extends SCIP-JACK to a massively par- allel solver by using the Ubiquity Generator (UG) framework. ug [SCIP-JACK, MPI] was the only solver that could run on a distributed environment at the (latest) 11th DIMACS Challenge in 2014. Furthermore, it could solve three well-known open instances and updated 14 best known solutions to instances from the bench- mark libary STEINLIB. After the DIMACS Challenge, SCIP-JACK has been con- siderably improved. However, the improvements were not reflected on ug [SCIP- JACK, MPI]. This paper describes an updated version of ug [SCIP-JACK, MPI], especially branching on constrains and a customized racing ramp-up. Furthermore, the different stages of the solution process on a supercomputer are described in detail. We also show the latest results on open instances from the STEINLIB.

Calculation of clinch and elimination numbers for sports leagues with multiple tiebreaking criteria
(2018)

The clinch (elimination) number is a minimal number of future wins (losses) needed to clinch (to be eliminated from) a specified place in a sports league. Several optimization models and computational results are shown in this paper for calculating clinch and elimination numbers in the presence of predefined multiple tiebreaking criteria. The main subject of this paper is to provide a general algorithmic framework based on integer programming with utilizing possibly multilayered upper and lower bounds.

We consider the use of randomised forward models and log-likelihoods within the Bayesian approach to inverse problems. Such random approximations to the exact forward model or log-likelihood arise naturally when a computationally expensive model is approximated using a cheaper stochastic surrogate, as in Gaussian process emulation (kriging), or in the field of probabilistic numerical methods. We show that the Hellinger distance between the exact and approximate Bayesian posteriors is bounded by moments of the difference between the true and approximate log-likelihoods. Example applications of these stability results are given for randomised misfit models in large data applications and the probabilistic solution of ordinary differential equations.

Mixed integer linear programming (MIP) is a general form to model combinatorial optimization problems and has many industrial applications. The performance of MIP solvers has improved tremendously in the last two decades and these solvers have been used to solve many real-word problems. However, against the backdrop of modern computer technology, parallelization is of pivotal importance. In this way, ParaSCIP is the most successful parallel MIP solver in terms of solving previously unsolvable instances from the well-known benchmark instance set MIPLIB by using supercomputers. It solved two instances from MIPLIB2003 and 12 from MIPLIB2010 for the first time to optimality by using up to 80,000 cores on supercomputers. ParaSCIP has been developed by using the Ubiquity Generator (UG) framework, which is a general software package to parallelize any state-of-the-art branch-and-bound based solver. This paper discusses 7 years of progress in parallelizing branch-and-bound solvers with UG.

PIPS-SBB is a distributed-memory parallel solver with a scalable data distribution paradigm. It is designed to solve MIPs with a dual-block angular structure, which is characteristic of deterministic-equivalent Stochastic Mixed-Integer Programs (SMIPs). In this paper, we present two different parallelizations of Branch & Bound (B&B), implementing both as extensions of PIPS-SBB, thus adding an additional layer of parallelism. In the first of the proposed frameworks, PIPS-PSBB, the coordination and load-balancing of the different optimization workers is done in a decentralized fashion. This new framework is designed to ensure all available cores are processing the most promising parts of the B&B tree. The second, ug[PIPS-SBB,MPI], is a parallel implementation using the Ubiquity Generator (UG), a universal framework for parallelizing B&B tree search that has been successfully applied to other MIP solvers. We show the effects of leveraging multiple levels of parallelism in potentially improving scaling performance beyond thousands of cores.

The goal of quantitative photoacoustic tomography (qPAT) is to recover maps of the chromophore distributions from multiwavelength images of the initial pressure. Model-based inversions that incorporate the physical processes underlying the photoacoustic (PA) signal generation represent a promising approach. Monte-Carlo models of the light transport are computationally expensive, but provide accurate fluence distributions predictions, especially in the ballistic and quasi-ballistic regimes. Here, we focus on the inverse problem of 3D qPAT of blood oxygenation and investigate the application of the Monte-Carlo method in a model-based inversion scheme. A forward model of the light transport based on the MCX simulator and acoustic propagation modeled by the k-Wave toolbox was used to generate a PA image data set acquired in a tissue phantom over a planar detection geometry. The combination of the optical and acoustic models is shown to account for limited-view artifacts. In addition, the errors in the fluence due to, for example, partial volume artifacts and absorbers immediately adjacent to the region of interest are investigated. To accomplish large-scale inversions in 3D, the number of degrees of freedom is reduced by applying image segmentation to the initial pressure distribution to extract a limited number of regions with homogeneous optical parameters. The absorber concentration in the tissue phantom was estimated using a coordinate descent parameter search based on the comparison between measured and modeled PA spectra. The estimated relative concentrations using this approach lie within 5 % compared to the known concentrations. Finally, we discuss the feasibility of this approach to recover the blood oxygenation from experimental data.