## 68-XX COMPUTER SCIENCE (For papers involving machine computations and programs in a specific mathematical area, see Section -04 in that area)

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Tai256c is the largest unsolved quadratic assignment problem (QAP) instance in QAPLIB. It is known that QAP tai256c can be converted into a 256 dimensional binary quadratic optimization problem (BQOP) with a single cardinality constraint which requires the sum of the binary variables to be 92. As the BQOP is much simpler than the original QAP, the conversion increases the possibility to solve the QAP. Solving exactly the BQOP, however, is still very difficult. Indeed, a 1.48% gap remains between the best known upper bound (UB) and lower bound (LB) of the unknown optimal value. This paper shows that the BQOP admits a nontrivial symmetry, a property that makes the BQOP very hard to solve. The symmetry induces equivalent subproblems in branch and bound (BB) methods. To effectively improve the LB, we propose an efficient BB method that incorporates a doubly nonnegative relaxation, the standard orbit branching and a technique to prune equivalent subproblems. With this BB method, a new LB with 1.25% gap is successfully obtained, and computing an LB with 1.0% gap is shown to be still quite difficult.

The optimization of periodic timetables is an indispensable planning task in public transport. Although the periodic event scheduling problem (PESP) provides an elegant mathematical formulation of the periodic timetabling problem that led to many insights for primal heuristics, it is notoriously hard to solve to optimality. One reason is that for the standard mixed-integer linear programming formulations, linear programming relaxations are weak and the integer variables are of pure technical nature and in general do not correlate with the objective value. While the first problem has been addressed by developing several families of cutting planes, we focus on the second aspect. We discuss integral forward cycle bases as a concept to compute improved dual bounds for PESP instances. To this end, we develop the theory of forward cycle bases on general digraphs. Specifically for the application of timetabling, we devise a generic procedure to construct line-based event-activity networks, and give a simple recipe for an integral forward cycle basis on such networks. Finally, we analyze the 16 railway instances of the benchmark library PESPlib, match them to the line-based structure and use forward cycle bases to compute better dual bounds for 14 out of the 16 instances.

Consolidation of commodities and coordination of vehicle routes are fundamental features of supply chain management problems. While locations for consolidation and coordination are typically known a priori, in adaptive transportation networks this is not the case. The identification of such consolidation locations forms part of the decision making process. Supply chain management problems integrating the designation of consolidation locations with the coordination of long haul and local vehicle routing is not only challenging to solve, but also very difficult to formulate mathematically. In this paper, the first mathematical model integrating location clustering with long haul and local vehicle routing is proposed. This mathematical formulation is used to develop algorithms to find high quality solutions. A novel parallel framework is developed that combines exact and heuristic methods to improve the search for high quality solutions and provide valid bounds. The results demonstrate that using exact methods to guide heuristic search is an effective approach to find high quality solutions for difficult supply chain management problems.

Estimating 3D Shape of the Head Skeleton of Basking Sharks Using Annotated Landmarks on a 2D Image
(2022)

Basking sharks are thought to be one of the most efficient filter-feeding fish in terms of the throughput of water filtered through their gills. Details about the underlying morphology of their branchial region have not been studied due to various challenges in acquiring real-world data. The present thesis aims to facilitate this, by developing a mathematical shape model which constructs the 3D structure of the head skeleton of a basking shark using annotated landmarks on a single 2D image. This is an ill-posed problem as estimating the depth of a 3D object from a single 2D view is, in general, not possible. To reduce this ambiguity, we create a set of pre-defined training shapes in 3D from CT scans of basking sharks. First, the damaged structures of the sharks in the scans are corrected via solving a set of optimization problems, before using them as accurate 3D representations of the object. Then, two approaches are employed for the 2D-to-3D shape fitting problem–an Active Shape Model approach and a Kendall’s Shape Space approach. The former represents a shape as a point on a high-dimensional Euclidean space, whereas the latter represents a shape as an equivalence class of points in this Euclidean space. Kendall’s shape space approach is a novel technique that has not yet been applied in this context, and a comprehensive comparison of the two approaches suggests this approach to be superior for the problem at hand. This can be credited to an improved interpolation of the training shapes.

大規模二次割当問題への挑戦
(2022)

Morphomatics is an open-source Python library for (statistical) shape analysis developed within the geometric data analysis and processing research group at Zuse Institute Berlin. It contains prototype implementations of intrinsic manifold-based methods that are highly consistent and avoid the influence of unwanted effects such as bias due to arbitrary choices of coordinates.

UG is a generic framework to parallelize branch-and-bound based solvers (e.g., MIP, MINLP, ExactIP) in a distributed or shared memory computing environment. It exploits the powerful performance of state-of-the-art "base solvers", such as SCIP, CPLEX, etc. without the need for base solver parallelization.
UG framework, ParaSCIP(ug[SCIP,MPI]) and FiberSCIP (ug[SCIP,Pthreads]) are available as a beta version.
v1.0.0: new documentation and cmake, generalization of ug framework, implementation of selfsplitrampup for fiber- and parascip, better memory and time limit handling.

Sampling rare events in metastable dynamical systems is often a computationally expensive task and one needs to resort to enhanced sampling methods such as importance sampling. Since we can formulate the problem of finding optimal importance sampling controls as a stochastic optimization problem, this then brings additional numerical challenges and the convergence of corresponding algorithms might as well suffer from metastabilty. In this article we address this issue by combining systematic control approaches with the heuristic adaptive metadynamics method. Crucially, we approximate the importance sampling control by a neural network, which makes the algorithm in principle feasible for high dimensional applications. We can numerically demonstrate in relevant metastable problems that our algorithm is more effective than previous attempts and that only the combination of the two approaches leads to a satisfying convergence and therefore to an efficient sampling in certain metastable settings.

For cryptanalysis in lattice-based schemes, the performance evaluation of lattice basis reduction using high-performance computers is becoming increasingly important for the determination of the security level. We propose a distributed and asynchronous parallel reduction algorithm based on randomization and DeepBKZ, which is an improved variant of the block Korkine-Zolotarev (BKZ) reduction algorithm. Randomized copies of a lattice basis are distributed to up to 103,680 cores and independently reduced in parallel, while some basis vectors are shared asynchronously among all processes via MPI. There is a trade-off between randomization and information sharing; if a substantial amount of information is shared, all processes will work on the same problem, thereby diminishing the benefit of parallelization. To monitor this balance between randomness and sharing, we propose a metric to quantify the variety of lattice bases. We empirically find an optimal parameter of sharing for high-dimensional lattices. We demonstrate the efficacy of our proposed parallel algorithm and implementation with respect to both performance and scalability through our experiments.