## 65N30 Finite elements, Rayleigh-Ritz and Galerkin methods, finite methods

### Refine

#### Year of publication

#### Document Type

- ZIB-Report (27)
- Doctoral Thesis (1)
- Habilitation (1)

#### Keywords

#### Institute

- ZIB Allgemein (21)
- Numerical Mathematics (9)
- Computational Medicine (7)
- Computational Nano Optics (1)
- Therapy Planning (1)
- Visual Data Analysis (1)

Kaskade 7 is a finite element toolbox for the solution of stationary or transient systems of partial differential equations, aimed at supporting application-oriented research in numerical analysis and scientific computing. The library is written in C++ and is based on the Dune interface. The code is independent of spatial dimension and works with different grid managers. An important feature is the mix-and-match approach to discretizing systems of PDEs with different ansatz and test spaces for all variables.
We describe the mathematical concepts behind the library as well as its structure, illustrating its use at several examples on the way.

Solvers for partial differential equations (PDE) are one of the cornerstones of computational science. For large problems, they involve huge amounts of data that needs to be stored and transmitted on all levels of the memory hierarchy. Often, bandwidth is the limiting factor due to relatively small arithmetic intensity, and increasingly so due to the growing disparity between computing power and bandwidth. Consequently, data compression techniques have been investigated and tailored towards the specific requirements of PDE solvers during the last decades. This paper surveys data compression challenges and corresponding solution approaches for PDE problems, covering all levels of the memory hierarchy from mass storage up to main memory. Exemplarily, we illustrate concepts at particular methods, and give references to alternatives.

We consider a shape implant design problem that arises in the context of facial surgery.
We introduce a reformulation as an optimal control problem, where the control acts
as a boundary force. The state is modelled as a minimizer of a polyconvex
hyperelastic energy functional. We show existence of optimal solutions and
derive - on a formal level - first order optimality conditions. Finally, preliminary numerical results
are presented.

We consider Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Metric Mapping of general $m$-currents. After stating an optimization algorithm in the function space of admissable morph generating velocity fields, two innovative aspects in this framework are presented and numerically investigated: First, we spatially discretize the velocity field with conforming adaptive finite elements and discuss advantages of this new approach. Second, we directly compute the temporal evolution of discrete $m$-current attributes.

This paper presents concepts and implementation of the finite element toolbox Kaskade 7, a flexible C++ code for solving elliptic and parabolic PDE systems. Issues such as problem formulation, assembly and adaptivity are discussed at the example of optimal control problems. Trajectory compression for parabolic optimization problems is considered as a case study.

Transparent boundary conditions for Maxwell's equations: Numerical concepts beyond the PML method
(2009)

Optical technologies are ubiquitously used in hi-tech devices. As a common feature of such devices one finds structures with dimensions in the order of the wavelength of the used light. To design and produce such devices, the wave nature of light must be taken into account. Accordingly, robust simulation tools are required which are based on rigorously solving Maxwell's equations, the governing equations of light propagation within macroscopic media. This thesis contributes to the modeling and the numerical computation of light scattering problems: Light scattering problems are typically posed on the entire space. The Perfectly-Matched -Layer method (PML) is widely used to restrict the simulation problem onto a bounded computational domain. We propose an adaptive PML method which exhibits a good convergence even for critical problems where standard PML implementations fail. Besides the computation of the near field, that is the electromagnetic field within the computational domain, it is of major interest to evaluate the electromagnetic field in the exterior domain and to compute the far field. So far, this was numerically only possible for simple geometries such as homogeneous exterior domains or layered media. To deal with more complicated devices, for example with waveguide inhomogeneities, we develop an evaluation formula based on the PML solution which allows for an exterior domain field evaluation in a half space above the device. Finally, we generalize the PML method to problems with multiply structured exterior domains. The term “multiply structured exterior domain” is defined in this thesis and means that the exterior domain exhibits several half-infinite structures. Mathematically, this gives rise to various complications. For example, no analytical solutions to Maxwell's equations for standard light sources are available in the exterior domain, which are needed to describe the incoming field in a light scattering problem. To tackle this we propose a new light scattering problem formulation which fits well into the PML method framework and which may be regarded as an extension of classical contributions by Sommerfeld, Wiener and Hopf. An exterior domain evaluation formula for multiply structured exterior domains with an extended illumination is derived as well.

We present a second order sharp interface finite volume method for the solution of the three-dimensional poisson equation with variable coefficients on Cartesian grids. In particular, we focus on interface problems with discontinuities in the coefficient, the source term, the solution, and the fluxes across the interface. The method uses standard piecewiese trilinear finite elements for normal cells and a double piecewise trilinear ansatz for the solution on cells intersected by the interface resulting always in a compact 27-point stencil. Singularities associated with vanishing partial volumes of intersected grid cells are removed by a two-term asymptotic approach. In contrast to the 2D method presented by two of the authors in [M.~Oevermann, R.~Klein: A Cartesian grid finite volume method for elliptic equations with variable coefficients and embedded interfaces, J.~Comp.~Phys.~219 (2006)] we use a minimization technique to determine the unknown coefficients of the double trilinear ansatz. This simplifies the treatment of the different cut-cell types and avoids additional special operations for degenerated interface topologies. The resulting set of linear equations has been solved with a BiCGSTAB solver preconditioned with an algebraic multigrid. In various testcases -- including large coefficient ratios and non-smooth interfaces -- the method achieves second order of accuracy in the L_inf and L_2 norm.

We present a finite volume method for the solution of the two-dimensional Poisson equation $ \nabla\cdot( \beta( {\mbox{\boldmath $x$}}) \nabla u({\mbox{\boldmath $x$}})) = f(\mbox{\boldmath $x$}) $ with variable, discontinuous coefficients and solution discontinuities on irregular domains. The method uses bilinear ansatz functions on Cartesian grids for the solution $u({\mbox{\boldmath $x$})$ resulting in a compact nine-point stencil. The resulting linear problem has been solved with a standard multigrid solver. Singularities associated with vanishing partial volumes of intersected grid cells or the dual bilinear ansatz itself are removed by a two-step asymptotic approach. The method achieves second order of accuracy in the $L^\infty$ and $L^2$ norm.

The paper extends affine conjugate Newton methods from convex to nonconvex minimization, with particular emphasis on PDE problems originating from compressible hyperelasticity. Based on well-known schemes from finite dimensional nonlinear optimization, three different algorithmic variants are worked out in a function space setting, which permits an adaptive multilevel finite element implementation. These algorithms are tested on two well-known 3D test problems and a real-life example from surgical operation planning.

In this paper we propose a new finite element realization of the Perfectly Matched Layer method (PML-method). Our approach allows to deal with arbitrary shaped polygonal domains and with certain types of inhomogeneous exterior domains. Among the covered inhomogeneities are open waveguide structures playing an essential role in integrated optics. We give a detailed insight to implementation aspects. Numerical examples show exponential convergence behavior to the exact solution with the thickness of the PML sponge layer.