## 65M50 Mesh generation and refinement

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#### Keywords

- human mandible (3)
- Rosenbrock methods (2)
- adaptive finite elements (2)
- Biot's model (1)
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- KARDOS (1)
- Kopplung (1)
- L1-error estimates (1)
- Poroelasticity (1)
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#### Institute

Spectral Deferred Correction methods for adaptive electro-mechanical coupling in cardiac simulation
(2014)

We investigate spectral deferred correction (SDC) methods for time stepping
and their interplay with spatio-temporal adaptivity, applied to the solution
of the cardiac electro-mechanical coupling model. This model consists
of the Monodomain equations, a reaction-diffusion system modeling the cardiac
bioelectrical activity, coupled with a quasi-static mechanical model describing
the contraction and relaxation of the cardiac muscle. The numerical
approximation of the cardiac electro-mechanical coupling is a challenging
multiphysics problem, because it exhibits very different spatial and temporal
scales. Therefore, spatio-temporal adaptivity is a promising approach
to reduce the computational complexity. SDC methods are simple iterative
methods for solving collocation systems. We exploit their flexibility for combining
them in various ways with spatio-temporal adaptivity. The accuracy
and computational complexity of the resulting methods are studied on some
numerical examples.

In contrast to the well known meshbased methods like the finite element method, meshfree methods do not rely on a mesh. However besides their great applicability, meshfree methods are rather time consuming. Thus, it seems favorable to combine both methods, by using meshfree methods only in a small part of the domain, where a mesh is disadvantageous, and a meshbased method for the rest of the domain. We motivate, that this coupling between the two simulation techniques can be considered as saddle point problem and show the stability of this coupling. Thereby a novel transfer operator is introduced, which interacts in the transition zone, where both methods coexist.

Pulse thermography of concrete structures is used in civil engineering for detecting voids, honeycombing and delamination. The physical situation is readily modeled by Fourier's law. Despite the simplicity of the PDE structure, quantitatively realistic numerical 3D simulation faces two major obstacles. First, the short heating pulse induces a thin boundary layer at the heated surface which encapsulates all information and therefore has to be resolved faithfully. Even with adaptive mesh refinement techniques, obtaining useful accuracies requires an unsatisfactorily fine discretization. Second, bulk material parameters and boundary conditions are barely known exactly. We address both issues by a semi-analytic reformulation of the heat transport problem and by parameter identification. Numerical results are compared with measurements of test specimens.

Parabolic reaction-diffusion systems may develop sharp moving reaction fronts which pose a challenge even for adaptive finite element methods. We propose a method to transform the equation into an equivalent form that usually exhibits solutions which are easier to discretize, giving higher accuracy for a given number of degrees of freedom. The transformation is realized as an efficiently computable pointwise nonlinear scaling that is optimized for prototypical planar travelling wave solutions of the underlying reaction-diffusion equation. The gain in either performance or accuracy is demonstrated on different numerical examples.

Adaptive numerical methods in time and space are introduced and studied for linear poroelastic models in two and three space dimensions. We present equivalent models for linear poroelasticity and choose both the {\em displacement--pressure} and the {\em stress--pressure} formulation for our computations. Their discretizations are provided by means of linearly implicit schemes in time and linear finite elements in space. Our concept of adaptivity opens a way to a fast and reliable simulation of different loading cases defined by corresponding boundary conditions. We present some examples using our code {\sf Kardos} and show that the method works efficiently. In particular, it could be used in the simulation of some bone healing models.

Structural mechanics simulation of bony organs is of general medical and biomechanical interest, because of the interdependence of the inner architecture of bone and its functional loading already stated by Wolff in 1892. This work is part of a detailed research project concerning the human mandible. By adaptive finite element techniques, stress/strain profiles occurring in the bony structure under biting were simulated. Estimates of the discretization errors, local grid refinement, and multilevel techniques guarantee the reliability and efficiency of the method. In general, our simulation requires a representation of the organ's geometry, an appropriate material description, and the load case due to teeth, muscle, or joint forces. In this paper, we want to focus on the influence of the masticatory system. Our goal is to capture the physiological situation as far as possible. By means of visualization techniques developed by the group, we are able to extract individual muscle fibres from computed tomography data. By a special algorithm, the fibres are expanded to fanlike (esp. for the musc. temporalis) coherent vector fields similar to the anatomical reality. The activity of the fibres can be adapted according to compartmentalisation of the muscles as measured by electromyological experiments. A refined sensitivity analysis proved remarkable impact of the presented approach on the simulation results.

We focus on the role of anisotropic elasticity in the simulation of the load distribution in a human mandible due to a lateral bite on the leftmost premolar. Based on experimental evidence, we adopt ``local''" orthotropy of the elastic properties of the bone tissue. Since the trajectories of anisotropic elasticity are not accessible from Computer Tomographic (CT) data, they will be reconstructed from (i) the organ's geometry and (ii) from coherent structures which can be recognized from the spatial distribution of the CT values. A sensitivity analysis comprising various 3D FE simulations reveals the relevance of elastic anisotropy for the load carrying behavior of a human mandible: Comparison of the load distributions in isotropic and anisotropic simulations indicates that anisotropy seems to ``spare''" the mandible from loading. Moreover, a maximum degree of anisotropy leads to kind of an load minimization of the mandible, expressed by a minimum of different norms of local strain, evaluated throughout the organ. Thus, we may suggest that anisotropy is not only relevant, but also in some sense ``optimal''.

The correlation of the inner architecture of bone and its functional loading was already stated by Wolff in 1892. Our objective is to demonstrate this interdependence in the case of the human mandible. For this purpose, stress/strain profiles occuring at a human lateral bite were simulated. Additionally, by a combination of computer graphics modules, a three--dimensional volumetric visualization of bone mineral density could be given. Qualitative correspondences between the density profile of the jaw and the simulated stress/strain profiles could be pointed out. In the long run, this might enable the use of the simulation for diagnosis and prognosis. The solution of the underlying partial differential equations describing linear elastic material behaviour was provided by an adaptive finite element method. Estimates of the discretization errors, local grid refinement, and multilevel techniques guaranteed the reliability and efficiency of the method.

KARDOS - User"s Guide
(2002)

The adaptive finite element code {\sc Kardos} solves nonlinear parabolic systems of partial differential equations. It is applied to a wide range of problems from physics, chemistry, and engineering in one, two, or three space dimensions. The implementation is based on the programming language C. Adaptive finite element techniques are employed to provide solvers of optimal complexity. This implies a posteriori error estimation, local mesh refinement, and preconditioning of linear systems. Linearely implicit time integrators of {\em Rosenbrock} type allow for controlling the time steps adaptively and for solving nonlinear problems without using {\em Newton's} iterations. The program has proved to be robust and reliable. The user's guide explains all details a user of {\sc Kardos} has to consider: the description of the partial differential equations with their boundary and initial conditions, the triangulation of the domain, and the setting of parameters controlling the numerical algorithm. A couple of examples makes familiar to problems which were treated with {\sc Kardos}. We are extending this guide continuously. The latest version is available by network: {\begin{rawhtml} <A href="http://www.zib.de/Numerik/software/kardos/"> <i> Downloads.</i></a> \end{rawhtml}}

A new adaptive approach for one-dimensional scalar conservation laws with convex flux is proposed. The initial data are approximated on an adaptive grid by a problem dependent, monotone interpolation procedure in such a way, that the multivalued problem of characteristic transport can be easily and explicitly solved. The unique entropy solution is chosen by means of a selection criterion due to LAX. For arbitrary times, the solutions is represented by an adaptive monotone spline interpolation. The spatial approximation is controlled by local $L^1$-error estimated. As a distinctive feature of the approach, there is no discretization in time. The method is monotone on fixed grids. Numerical examples are included, to demonstrate the predicted behavior. {\bf Key words.} method of characteristics, adaptive grids, monotone interpolation, $L^1$-error estimates {\bf AMS(MOS) subject classification.} 65M15, 65M25, 65M50.