## 52C22 Tilings in n dimensions [See also 05B45, 51M20]

### Refine

#### Document Type

- ZIB-Report (6)
- Doctoral Thesis (1)

#### Has Fulltext

- yes (7)

#### Is part of the Bibliography

- no (7)

#### Keywords

- triangulation (4)
- Generalized Baues Problem (3)
- Bistellar Operations (2)
- Cyclic Polytopes (2)
- Induced Subdivisions (2)
- Polyhedral Subdivisions (2)
- Poset (2)
- Spherical (2)
- chirotope (2)
- circuit (2)

#### Institute

The Periodic Event Scheduling Problem (PESP) is the standard mathematical tool for optimizing periodic timetabling problems in public transport. A solution to PESP consists of three parts: a periodic timetable, a periodic tension, and integer periodic offset values. While the space of periodic tension has received much attention in the past, we explore geometric properties of the other two components, establishing novel connections between periodic timetabling and discrete geometry. Firstly, we study the space of feasible periodic timetables, and decompose it into polytropes, i.e., polytopes that are convex both classically and in the sense of tropical geometry. We then study this decomposition and use it to outline a new heuristic for PESP, based on the tropical neighbourhood of the polytropes. Secondly, we recognize that the space of fractional cycle offsets is in fact a zonotope. We relate its zonotopal tilings back to the hyperrectangle of fractional periodic tensions and to the tropical neighbourhood of the periodic timetable space. To conclude we also use this new understanding to give tight lower bounds on the minimum width of an integral cycle basis.

TOPCOM is a package for computing triangulations of point configurations and oriented matroids. For example, for a point configuration one can compute the chirotope, components of the flip graph of triangulations, enumerate all triangulations. The core algorithms implemented in TOPCOM are described, and implentation issues are discussed.

Oriented matroids are combinatorial structures that encode the combinatorics of point configurations. The set of all triangulations of a point configuration depends only on its oriented matroid. We survey the most important ingredients necessary to exploit oriented matroids as a data structure for computing all triangulations of a point configuration, and report on experience with an implementation of these concepts in the software package TOPCOM. Next, we briefly overview the construction and an application of the secondary polytope of a point configuration, and calculate some examples illustrating how our tools were integrated into the {\sc polymake} framework.

Dieser Report wurde im Sommersemester 2000 an der TU Berlin in einer Spezialvorlesung über Triangulierungen von Punktmengen und Polyedern als Skriptum verwendet. Nach einem motivierenden Kapitel werden grundlegende Begriffe und Konstruktionen in der Theorie der Triangulierungen von Punktmengen und Polyedern vorgestellt. Danach werden als weiterführende Themen reguläre Triangulierungen, Sekundärpolytope, bistellare Operationen, höhere Stasheff-Tamari-Halbordnungen und Triangulierungen mit wenigen bzw. gar keinen Flips behandelt. Ein Kapitel über Enumeration und Optimierung beschließt die Zusammenstellung.

Given an affine surjection of polytopes $\pi: P \to Q$, the Generalized Baues Problem asks whether the poset of all proper polyhedral subdivisions of $Q$ which are induced by the map $\pi$ has the homotopy type of a sphere. We extend earlier work of the last two authors on subdivisions of cyclic polytopes to give an affirmative answer to the problem for the natural surjections between cyclic polytopes $\pi: C(n,d') \to C(n,d)$ for all $1 \leq d < d' < n$.

The Generalized Baues Problem asks whether for a given point configuration the order complex of all its proper polyhedral subdivisions, partially ordered by refinement, is homotopy equivalent to a sphere. In this paper, an affirmative answer is given for the vertex sets of cyclic polytopes in all dimensions. This yields the first non-trivial class of point configurations with neither a bound on the dimension, the codimension, nor the number of vertice for which this is known to be true. Moreover, it is shown that all triangulations of cyclic polytopes are lifting triangulations. This contrasts the fact that in general there are many non-regular triangulations of cyclic polytopes. Beyond this, we find triangulations of $C(11,5)$ with flip deficiency. This proves---among other things---that there are triangulations of cyclic polytopes that are non-regular for every choice of points on the moment curve.

The present dissertation deals with the structure of polyhedral subdivisions of point configurations. Of particular interest are the global properties of the set of all subdivisions of a given point configuration. An important open problem in this context is the following: can one always transform any triangulation of a given point configuration to any other triangulation of the same configuration by means of bistellar operations? In other words, is the set of all triangulations of a given point configuration always bistellarly connected? The results presented in this thesis contribute progress from two directions. \begin{itemize} \item The set of all subdivisions that are induced by a polytope projection is in general not bistellarly connected in a generalized sense. This result is obtained by constructing a counterexample to the so-called Generalized Baues Conjecture.'' \item The set of all triangulations of a cyclic polytope forms a bounded poset. The covering relations are given by increasing bistellar operations. Thus we get an affirmative answer to the above question in the case of cyclic polytopes. \end{itemize} In the introduction, the mathematical environment of the structures under consideration is illuminated. The "Generalized Baues Conjecture" has connections to various mathematical concepts, such as combinatorial models for loop spaces, discriminants of polynomials in several variables, etc. The triangulation posets of cyclic polytopes are natural generalizations of the well-studied Tamari lattices in order theory. Moreover, there is a connection to the higher Bruhat orders, which have similar structural properties. As a by-product, the investigations yield the shellability of all triangulations of cyclic polytopes without new vertices. This is in particular interesting because most triangulations of cyclic polytopes are non-regular.