## I. Computing Methodologies

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PIPS-SBB is a distributed-memory parallel solver with a scalable data distribution paradigm. It is designed to solve MIPs with a dual-block angular structure, which is characteristic of deterministic-equivalent Stochastic Mixed-Integer Programs (SMIPs). In this paper, we present two different parallelizations of Branch & Bound (B&B), implementing both as extensions of PIPS-SBB, thus adding an additional layer of parallelism. In the first of the proposed frameworks, PIPS-PSBB, the coordination and load-balancing of the different optimization workers is done in a decentralized fashion. This new framework is designed to ensure all available cores are processing the most promising parts of the B&B tree. The second, ug[PIPS-SBB,MPI], is a parallel implementation using the Ubiquity Generator (UG), a universal framework for parallelizing B&B tree search that has been successfully applied to other MIP solvers. We show the effects of leveraging multiple levels of parallelism in potentially improving scaling performance beyond thousands of cores.

This paper describes how we solved 12 previously unsolved mixed-integer program-
ming (MIP) instances from the MIPLIB benchmark sets. To achieve these results we
used an enhanced version of ParaSCIP, setting a new record for the largest scale MIP
computation: up to 80,000 cores in parallel on the Titan supercomputer. In this paper
we describe the basic parallelization mechanism of ParaSCIP, improvements of the
dynamic load balancing and novel techniques to exploit the power of parallelization
for MIP solving. We give a detailed overview of computing times and statistics for
solving open MIPLIB instances.

The applicability of accelerators is limited by the attainable speed-up for the offloaded computations and by the offloading overheads. While GPU programming models like CUDA and OpenCL only allow to optimise the application code and its speed-up, the available low-level APIs for the Intel Xeon Phi provide opportunity to address the overheads, too. This work presents an Heterogeneous Active Message (HAM) layer that minimises software overheads for offloading on Intel’s Xeon Phi. It provides the basis for an offload API with similar semantics as the Intel Language Extensions for Offload (LEO). In contrast to LEO, HAM works within the C++ language and needs no additional compiler support. We evaluated HAM on top of SCIF and MPI as communication backends. While the SCIF backend offers the best performance, the MPI backend allows for inter-node offloads which are not possible with other offload solutions.
Benchmark results show that the cost for offloading a function call can be
decreased by a factor up to 18 compared with LEO.

Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCS) have become a widespread and powerful method to describe dynamic motion patterns in time-dependent flow fields. The standard way to extract LCS is to compute height ridges in the Finite Time Lyapunov Exponent (FTLE) field. In this work, we present an alternative method to approximate Lagrangian features for 2D unsteady flow fields that achieves subgrid accuracy without additional particle sampling. We obtain this by a geometric reconstruction of the flow map using additional material constraints for the available samples. In comparison to the standard method, this allows for a more accurate global approximation of LCS on sparse grids and for long integration intervals. The proposed algorithm works directly on a set of given particle trajectories and without additional flow map derivatives. We demonstrate its application for a set of computational fluid dynamic examples, as well as trajectories acquired by Lagrangian methods, and discuss its
benefits and limitations.

This thesis firstly presents a nonlinear extended deterministic model for the transmission dynamics of tuberculosis, based on realistic assumptions and data collected from the WHO. This model enables a comprehensive qualitative analysis of various aspects in the outbreak and control of tuberculosis in Sub-Saharan Africa countries and successfully reproduces the epidemiology of tuberculosis in Cameroon for the past (from 1994-2010). Some particular properties of the model and its solution have been presented using the comparison theorem applied to the theory of differential equations. The existence and the stability of a disease free equilibrium has been discussed using the Perron-Frobenius theorem and Metzler stable matrices.
Furthermore, we computed the basic reproduction number, i.e. the number of cases that one case generates on average over the course of its infectious period. Rigorous qualitative analysis of the model reveals that, in contrast to the model without reinfections, the full model with reinfection exhibits the phenomenon of backward bifurcation, where a stable disease-free equilibrium coexists with a stable endemic equilibrium when a certain threshold quantity, known as the basic reproduction ratio (R0), is less than unity. The global stability of the disease-free equilibrium has been discussed using the concepts of Lyapunov stability and bifurcation theory.
With the help of a sensitivity analysis using data of Cameroon, we identified the relevant parameters which play a key role for the transmission and the control of the disease. This was possible applying sophisticated numerical methods (POEM) developed at ZIB. Using advanced approaches for optimal control considering the costs for chemoprophylaxis, treatment and educational campaigns should provide a framework for designing realistic cost effective strategies with different intervention methods. The forward-backward sweep method has been used to solve the numerical optimal control problem. The numerical result of the optimal control problem reveals that combined effort in education and chemoprophylaxis may lead to a reduction of 80\% in the number of infected people in 10 years.
The mathematical and numerical approaches developed in this thesis could be similarly applied in many other Sub-Saharan countries where TB is a public health problem.

Peer-to-peer (P2P) systems form a special class of distributed systems. Typically, nodes in a P2P system are flat and share the same responsabilities. In this thesis we focus on three problems that occur in P2P systems: the storage of data replicates, quantile computation on distributed data streams, and churn rate estimation. Data replication is one of the oldest techniques to maintain stored data in a P2P system and to reply to read requests. Applications, which use data replication are distributed databases. They are part of an abstract overlay network and do not see the underlying network topology. The question is how to place a set of data replicates in a distributed system such that response times and failure probabilities become minimal without a priori knowledge of the topology of the underlying hardware nodes? We show how to utilize an agglomerative clustering procedure to reach this goal. State-of-the-art algorithms for aggregation of distributed data or data streams require at some point synchronization, or merge data aggregates hierarchically, which does not accompany the basic principle of P2P systems. We test whether randomized communication and merging of data aggregates are able to produce the same results. These data aggregates serve for quantile queries. Constituting and maintaining a P2P overlay network requires frequent message passing. It is a goal to minimize the number of maintenance messages since they consume bandwidth which might be missing for other applications. The lower bound of the frequency for mainte- nance messages is highly dependent on the churn rate of peers. We show how to estimate the mean lifetime of peers and to reduce the frequency for maintenance messages without destabilizing the infrastructure of the constituting overlay.

We propose a novel GPU-based approach to render virtual X-ray projections of deformable tetrahedral meshes. These meshes represent the shape and the internal density distribution of a particular anatomical structure and are derived from statistical shape and intensity models (SSIMs). We apply our method to improve the geometric reconstruction of 3D anatomy (e.g.\ pelvic bone) from 2D X-ray images. For that purpose, shape and density of a tetrahedral mesh are varied and virtual X-ray projections are generated within an optimization process until the similarity between the computed virtual X-ray and the respective anatomy depicted in a given clinical X-ray is maximized. The OpenGL implementation presented in this work deforms and projects tetrahedral meshes of high resolution (200.000+ tetrahedra) at interactive rates. It generates virtual X-rays that accurately depict the density distribution of an anatomy of interest. Compared to existing methods that accumulate X-ray attenuation in deformable meshes, our novel approach significantly boosts the deformation/projection performance. The proposed projection algorithm scales better with respect to mesh resolution and complexity of the density distribution, and the combined deformation and projection on the GPU scales better with respect to the number of deformation parameters. The gain in performance allows for a larger number of cycles in the optimization process. Consequently, it reduces the risk of being stuck in a local optimum. We believe that our approach contributes in orthopedic surgery, where 3D anatomy information needs to be extracted from 2D X-rays to support surgeons in better planning joint replacements.

In this paper we describe VisiTrace, a novel technique to
draw 3D lines in 3D volume rendered images. It allows to
draw strokes in the 2D space of the screen to produce 3D
lines that run on top or in the center of structures actually
visible in the volume rendering. It can handle structures
that only shortly occlude the structure that has been visible at the starting point of the stroke and is able to ignore
such structures. For this purpose a shortest path algorithm
finding the optimal curve in a specially designed graph
data structure is employed. We demonstrate the usefulness of the technique by applying it to MRI data from
medicine and engineering, and show how the method can
be used to mark or analyze structures in the example data
sets, and to automatically obtain good views toward the
selected structures.

We present a game-theoretic approach to optimize the strategies of toll enforcement
on a motorway network. In contrast to previous approaches,
we consider a network with an arbitrary
topology, and we handle the fact that
users may choose their Origin-Destination path; in particular they may take a detour to
avoid sections with a high control rate. We show that a Nash equilibrium can be
computed with an LP (although the game is not zero-sum), and we give a MIP for the computation
of a Stackelberg equilibrium. Experimental results based on an application to the
enforcement of a truck toll on German motorways are presented.

We present an efficient GPU-based method to generate virtual X-ray images from tetrahedral meshes which are
associated with attenuation values. In addition, a novel approach is proposed that performs the model deformation
on the GPU. The tetrahedral grids are derived from volumetric statistical shape and intensity models (SSIMs) and describe anatomical structures. Our research targets at reconstructing 3D anatomical shapes by comparing virtual X-ray images generated using our novel approach with clinical data while varying the shape and density of the SSIM in an optimization process. We assume that a deformed SSIM adequately represents an anatomy of interest when the similarity between the virtual and the clinical X-ray image is maximized. The OpenGL implementation presented here generates accurate (virtual) X-ray images at interactive rates, thus qualifying it for its use in the reconstruction process.