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The Graduate-Level Research in Industrial Projects (G-RIPS) Program provides an
opportunity for high-achieving graduate-level students to work in teams on a
real-world research project proposed by a sponsor from industry or the public
sector. Each G-RIPS team consists of four international students (two from
the US and two from European universities), an academic mentor, and an industrial sponsor.
This is the report of the Rail-Lab project on the definition and integration of
robustness aspects into optimizing rolling stock schedules. In general, there is
a trade-off for complex systems between robustness and efficiency. The ambitious
goal was to explore this trade-off by implementing numerical simulations and
developing analytic models.
In rolling stock planning a very large set of industrial railway requirements,
such as vehicle composition, maintenance constraints, infrastructure capacity,
and regularity aspects, have to be considered in an integrated model. General
hypergraphs provide the modeling power to tackle those requirements.
Furthermore, integer programming approaches are able to produce high quality
solutions for the deterministic problem.
When stochastic time delays are considered, the mathematical programming problem
is much more complex and presents additional challenges. Thus, we started with a
basic variant of the deterministic case, i.e., we are only considering
hypergraphs representing vehicle composition and regularity.
We transfered solution approaches for robust optimization
from the airline industry to the setting of railways and attained a
reasonable measure of robustness. Finally, we present and discuss different
methods to optimize this robustness measure.

We present a novel framework to mathematically describe the fare systems of local public transit companies. The model allows the computation of a provably cheapest itinerary even if prices depend on a number of parameters and non-linear conditions. Our approach is based on a ticket graph model to represent tickets and their relation to each other. Transitions between tickets are modeled via transition functions over partially ordered monoids and a set of symbols representing special properties of fares (e.g. surcharges). Shortest path algorithms rely on the subpath optimality property. This property is usually lost when dealing with complicated fare systems. We restore it by relaxing domination rules for tickets depending on the structure of the ticket graph. An exemplary model for the fare system of Mitteldeutsche Verkehrsbetriebe (MDV) is provided. By integrating our framework in the multi-criteria RAPTOR algorithm we provide a price-sensitive algorithm for the earliest arrival problem and assess its performance on data obtained from MDV. We discuss three preprocessing techniques that improve run times enough to make the algorithm applicable for real-time queries.

The design of rolling stock rotations is an important task in large-scale railway planning. This so-called rolling stock rotation problem (RSRP) is usually tackled using an integer programming approach. Markus Reuther did so in his dissertation [15] for the ICE railway network of DB ("Deutsche Bahn"). Due to the size of the network and the complexity of further technical requirements, the resulting integer problems tend to become very large and computationally involved. In this thesis, we tackle the linear programming relaxation of the RSRP integer program. We will do so by applying a modified version of an algorithm recently proposed by Dan Bienstock and Mark Zuckerberg [2] for the precedence constrained production scheduling
problem that arises in open pit mine scheduling. This problem contains a large number of "easy" constraints and a relatively small number of "hard" constraints. We will see that a similar problem structure can also be found in the RSRP. The Bienstock-Zuckerberg algorithm relies on applying Lagrangian relaxation to the hard constraints as well as on partitioning the variable set. We propose three different partition schemes which try to exploit the specific problem structure of the RSRP. Furthermore, we will discuss the influence of primal degeneracy on the algorithm's performance, as well as possible merits of perturbating the right-hand side of the constraint matrix. We provide computational results to assess the performance of those approaches.

Dieses Dokument fasst den Stand der mathematischen Modellierung von
Preissystemen des öV mittels eines am ZIB entwickelten Tarifgraphenmodells zusammen. Damit sind sehr einfache und konzise
Beschreibungen von Tarifstrukturen möglich, die sich algorithmisch
behandeln lassen: Durch das zeitgleiche Tracken eines Pfades im
Routinggraphen im Tarifgraphen kann schon während einer Routenberechnung der Preis bestimmt werden. Wir beschreiben
zunächst das Konzept. Die konkrete Realisierung wird im Folgenden
beispielhaft an den Tarifsystemen der Verkehrsverbünde Warnow,
MDV, Vogtland, Bremen/Niedersachsen, Berlin/Brandenburg und Mittelsachsen erläutert. Anschließend folgen Überlegungen zur konkreten Implementierung von Kurzstrecken-Tarifen und zur Behandlung des Verbundübergriffs.

Air freight is usually shipped in standardized unit load devices (ULDs).
The planning process for the consolidation of transit cargo from inbound flights or locally emerging shipments into ULDs for outbound flights is called build-up scheduling.
More specifically, outbound ULDs must be assigned a time and a workstation subject to both workstation capacity constraints and the availability of shipments which in turn depends on break-down decisions for incoming ULDs.
ULDs scheduled for the same outbound flight should be built up in temporal and spatial proximity.
This serves both to minimize overhead in transportation times and to allow workers to move freight between ULDs.
We propose to address this requirement by processing ULDs for the same outbound flight in batches.
For the above build-up scheduling problem, we introduce a multi-commodity network design model.
Outbound flights are modeled as commodities; transit cargo is represented by cargo flow volume and unpack and batch decisions are represented as design variables.
The model is solved with standard MIP solvers on a set of benchmark data.
For instances with a limited number of resource conflicts, near-optimal solutions are found in under two hours for a whole week of operations.

Air freight is usually shipped in standardized unit load devices (ULDs). The planning process for the consolidation of transit cargo from inbound flights or locally emerging shipments into ULDs for outbound flights is called build-up scheduling. More specifically, outbound ULDs must be assigned a time and a workstation subject to both workstation capacity constraints and the availability of shipments which in turn depends on break-down decisions for incoming ULDs. ULDs scheduled for the same outbound flight should be built up in temporal and spatial proximity. This serves both to minimize overhead in transportation times and to allow workers to move freight between ULDs. We propose to address this requirement by processing ULDs for the same outbound flight in batches.
For the above build-up scheduling problem, we introduce a multi-commodity network design model. Outbound flights are modeled as commodities; transit cargo is represented by cargo flow volume and unpack and batch decisions are represented as design variables. The model is solved with a standard MIP solver on a set of benchmark data. For instances with a limited number of resource conflicts, near-optimal solutions are found in under two hours for a whole week of operations.

In dieser Arbeit wird ein graphenbasiertes Modell zur Einbindung von Preissystemen des öffentlichen Nahverkehrs in Routing-Algorithmen vorgestellt. Jeder Knoten des Graphen repräsentiert einen abstrakten Preiszustand einer Route und ist an einen tatsächlichen Preis gekoppelt. Damit sind sehr einfache und konzise Beschreibungen von Tarifstrukturen möglich, diesich algorithmisch behandeln lassen. Durch das zeitgleiche Tracken eines Pfades im Routinggraphen im Ticketgraphen kann schon während einer Routenberechnung der Preis bestimmt werden. Dies ermöglicht die Berechnung von preisoptimalen Routen. An den Tarifsystemen der Verkehrsverbünde MDV (Mitteldeutscher Verkehrsverbund) und VBB (Verkehrsverbund Berlin-Brandenburg) wird die Konstruktion des Modells detailliert erläutert.

We consider the price-optimal earliest arrival problem in public transit (POEAP) in which we aim to calculate the Pareto-front of journeys with respect to ticket price and arrival time in a public transportation network. Public transit fare structures are often a combination of various fare strategies such as, e.g., distance-based fares, zone-based fares or flat fares. The rules that determine the actual ticket price are often very complex. Accordingly, fare structures are notoriously difficult to model as it is in general not sufficient to simply assign costs to arcs in a routing graph. Research into POEAP is scarce and usually either relies on heuristics or only considers restrictive fare models that are too limited to cover the full scope of most real-world applications. We therefore introduce conditional fare networks (CFNs), the first framework for representing a large number of real-world fare structures. We show that by relaxing label domination criteria, CFNs can be used as a building block in label-setting multi-objective shortest path algorithms. By the nature of their extensive modeling capabilities, optimizing over CFNs is NP-hard. However, we demonstrate that adapting the multi-criteria RAPTOR (MCRAP) algorithm for CFNs yields an algorithm capable of solving POEAP to optimality in less than 400 ms on average on a real-world data set. By restricting the size of the Pareto-set, running times are further reduced to below 10 ms.

We study a complex planning and scheduling problem arising from the build-up process of air cargo pallets and containers, collectively referred to as unit load devices (ULD), in which ULDs must be assigned to workstations for loading. Since air freight usually becomes available gradually along the planning horizon, ULD build-ups must be scheduled neither too early to avoid underutilizing ULD capacity, nor too late to avoid resource conflicts with other flights. Whenever possible, ULDs should be built up in batches, thereby giving ground handlers more freedom to rearrange cargo and utilize the ULD's capacity efficiently. The resulting scheduling problem has an intricate cost function and produces large time-expanded models, especially for longer planning horizons. We propose a logic-based Benders decomposition approach that assigns batches to time intervals and workstations in the master problem, while the actual schedule is decided in a subproblem. By choosing appropriate intervals, the subproblem becomes a feasibility problem that decomposes over the workstations. Additionally, the similarity of many batches is exploited by a strengthening procedure for no-good cuts. We benchmark our approach against a time-expanded MIP formulation from the literature on a publicly available data set. It solves 15% more instances to optimality and decreases run times by more than 50% in the geometric mean. This improvement is especially pronounced for longer planning horizons of up to one week, where the Benders approach solves over 50% instances more than the baseline