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This article addresses the problem of estimating the Koopman generator of a Markov process. The direct computation of the infinitesimal generator is not easy because of the discretization of the state space, in particular because of the trade-off inherent in the choice of the best lag time to study the process. Short lag times implies a strong discretization of the state space and a consequent loss of Markovianity. Large lag times bypass events on fast timescales. We propose a method to approximate the generator with the computation of the Newton polynomial extrapolation. This technique is a multistep approach which uses as its input Koopman transfer operators evaluated for a series of lag times. Thus, the estimated infinitesimal generator combines information from different time resolutions and does not bias only fast- or slow-decaying dynamics. We show that the multi-scale Newton method can improve the estimation of the generator in comparison to the computation using finite difference or matrix logarithm methods.

Understanding the kinetics between the components of time-resolved spectra is a crucial step in the study of photo-activatedprocesses. However, modeling the kinetics requires usually some a priori knowledge about the system. In our approach, webuild a Markov State Model (MSM) from the spectral data, and obtain a Koopman transition matrix K(t). With genPCCA,an invariant subspace projection, we project the process into its metastable components. The result of the application of gen-PCCA is a transition matrix Kc(t), from which we can read the transition probability between the metastable components of the reaction. We discuss the application of this analysis method to the transient absorption spectrum of brominated Al-corrole

This work addresses the problem of determining the number of components from sequential spectroscopic data analyzed by non-negative matrix factorization without separability assumption (SepFree NMF). These data are stored in a matrix M of dimension “measured times” versus “measured wavenumbers” and can be decomposed to obtain the spectral fingerprints of the states and their evolution over time. SepFree NMF assumes a memoryless (Markovian) process to underline the dynamics and decomposes M so that M=WH, with W representing the components’ fingerprints and H their kinetics. However, the rank of this decomposition (i.e., the number of physical states in the process) has to be guessed from pre-existing knowledge on the observed process. We propose a measure for determining the number of components with the computation of the minimal memory effect resulting from the decomposition; by quantifying how much the obtained factorization is deviating from the Markovian property, we are able to score factorizations of a different number of components. In this way, we estimate the number of different entities which contribute to the observed system, and we can extract kinetic information without knowing the characteristic spectra of the single components. This manuscript provides the mathematical background as well as an analysis of computer generated and experimental sequentially measured Raman spectra.