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The problem of decomposing networks into modules (or clusters) has gained much attention in recent years, as it can account for a coarsegrained description of complex systems, often revealing functional subunits of these systems. A variety of module detection algorithms have been proposed, mostly oriented towards finding hard partitionings of undirected networks. Despite the increasing number of fuzzy clustering methods for directed networks, many of these approaches tend to neglect important directional information. In this paper, we present a novel random walk based approach for finding fuzzy partitions of directed, weighted networks, where edge directions play a crucial role in defining how well nodes in a module are interconnected. We will show that cycle decomposition of a random walk process connects the notion of network modules and information transport in a network, leading to a new, symmetric measure of node communication. Finally, we will use this measure to introduce a communication graph, for which we will show that although being undirected it inherits all necessary information about modular structures from the original network.

We present a comprehensive theory for analysis and understanding of transition events between an initial set A and a target set B for general ergodic finite-state space Markov chains or jump processes, including random walks on networks as they occur, e.g., in Markov State Modelling in molecular dynamics. The theory allows us to decompose the probability flow generated by transition events between the sets A and B into the productive part that directly flows from A to B through reaction pathways and the unproductive part that runs in loops and is supported on cycles of the underlying network. It applies to random walks on directed networks and nonreversible Markov processes and can be seen as an extension of Transition Path Theory. Information on reaction pathways and unproductive cycles results from the stochastic cycle decomposition of the underlying network which also allows to compute their corresponding weight, thus characterizing completely which structure is used how often in transition events. The new theory is illustrated by an application to a Markov State Model resulting from weakly damped Langevin dynamics where the unproductive cycles are associated with periodic orbits of the underlying Hamiltonian dynamics.

We consider complex dynamical systems showing metastable behavior but no local
separation of fast and slow time scales. The article raises the question of whether
such systems exhibit a low-dimensional manifold supporting its effective dynamics.
For answering this question, we aim at finding nonlinear coordinates, called reaction
coordinates, such that the projection of the dynamics onto these coordinates preserves
the dominant time scales of the dynamics. We show that, based on a specific
reducibility property, the existence of good low-dimensional reaction coordinates
preserving the dominant time scales is guaranteed. Based on this theoretical framework,
we develop and test a novel numerical approach for computing good reaction
coordinates. The proposed algorithmic approach is fully local and thus not prone to
the curse of dimension with respect to the state space of the dynamics. Hence, it is
a promising method for data-based model reduction of complex dynamical systems
such as molecular dynamics.

We investigate the problem of finding modules (or clusters, communities) in directed networks. Until now, most articles on this topic have been oriented towards finding complete network partitions despite the fact that this often is unwanted. We present a novel random walk based approach for non-complete partitions of the directed network into modules in which some nodes do not belong to only one of the modules but to several or to none at all. The new random walk process is reversible even for directed networks but inherits all necessary information about directions and structure of the original network. We demonstrate the performance of the new method in application to a real-world earthquake network.

The identification of meaningful reaction coordinates plays a key role in the study of complex molecular systems whose essential dynamics is characterized by rare or slow transition events. In a recent publication, the authors identified a condition under which such reaction coordinates exist - the existence of a so-called transition manifold - and proposed a numerical method for their point-wise computation that relies on short bursts of MD simulations. This article represents an extension of the method towards practical applicability in computational chemistry. It describes an alternative computational scheme that instead relies on more commonly available types of simulation data, such as single long molecular trajectories, or the push-forward of arbitrary canonically-distributed point clouds. It is based on a Galerkin approximation of the transition manifold reaction coordinates, that can be tuned to individual requirements by the choice of the Galerkin ansatz functions. Moreover, we propose a ready-to-implement variant of the new scheme, that computes data-fitted, mesh-free ansatz functions directly from the available simulation data. The efficacy of the new method is demonstrated
on a realistic peptide system.

A good deal of molecular dynamics simulations aims at predicting and quantifying rare events, such as the folding of a protein or a phase transition. Simulating rare events is often prohibitive, especially if the equations of motion are high-dimensional, as is the case in molecular dynamics. Various algorithms have been proposed for efficiently computing mean first passage times, transition rates or reaction pathways. This article surveys and discusses recent developments in the field of rare event simulation and outlines a new approach that combines ideas from optimal control and statistical mechanics. The optimal control approach described in detail resembles the use of Jarzynski's equality for free energy calculations, but with an optimized protocol that speeds up the sampling, while (theoretically) giving variance-free estimators of the rare events statistics. We illustrate the new approach with two numerical examples and discuss its relation to existing methods.