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Starting from several monthly data sets of Rosetta’s COmetary Pressure Sensor we reconstruct the gas density in the coma around comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The underlying inverse gas model is constructed by fitting ten thousands of measurements to thousands of potential gas sources distributed across the entire nucleus surface. The ensuing self-consistent solution for the entire coma density and surface activity reproduces the temporal and spatial variations seen in the data for monthly periods with Pearson correlation coefficients of 0.93 and higher. For different seasonal illumination conditions before and after perihelion we observe a systematic shift of gas sources on the nucleus.

A classic Discontinuous Galerkin Method with low-order polynomials and explicit as well as semi-implicit time-stepping is applied to an atmospheric model employing the Euler equations on the β plane. The method, which was initially proposed without regard for the source terms and their balance with the pressure gradient that dominates atmospheric dynamics, needs to be adapted to be able to keep the combined geostrophic and hydrostatic balance in three spatial dimensions. This is achieved inside the discretisation through a polynomial mapping of both source and flux terms without imposing filters between time steps. After introduction and verification of this balancing, the realistic development of barotropic and baroclinic waves in the model is demonstrated, including the formation of a retrograde Rossby wave pattern. A prerequesite is the numerical solution of the thermal wind equation to construct geostrophically balanced initial states in z coordinates with arbitrary prescribed zonal wind profile, offering a new set of test cases for atmospheric models employing z coordinates. The resulting simulations demonstrate that the balanced low-order Discontinous Galerkin discretisation with polynomial degrees down to k=1 can be a viable option for atmospheric modelling.

Context. Cometary outgassing is induced by the sublimation of ices and the ejection of dust originating from the nucleus. Therefore measuring the composition and dynamics of the cometary gas provides information concerning the interior composition of the body. Nevertheless, the bulk composition differs from the coma composition, and numerical models are required to simulate the main physical processes induced by the illumination of the icy body.
Aims. The objectives of this study are to bring new constraints on the interior composition of the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (hereafter 67P) by comparing the results of a thermophysical model applied to the nucleus of 67P and the coma measurements made by the Reflectron-type Time-Of-Flight (RTOF) mass spectrometer. This last is one of the three instruments of the Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis (ROSINA), used during the Rosetta mission.
Methods. Using a thermophysical model of the comet nucleus, we studied the evolution of the stratigraphy (position of the sublimation and crystallisation fronts), the temperature of the surface and subsurface, and the dynamics and spatial distribution of the volatiles (H2O, CO2 and CO). We compared them with the in situ measurements from ROSINA/RTOF and an inverse coma model.
Results. We observed the evolution of the surface and near surface temperature, and the deepening of sublimation fronts. The thickness of the dust layer covering the surface strongly influences the H2O outgassing but not the more volatiles species. The CO outgassing is highly sensitive to the initial CO/H2O ratio, as well as to the presence of trapped CO in the amorphous ice.
Conclusions. The study of the influence of the initial parameters on the computed volatile fluxes and the comparison with ROSINA/RTOF measurements provide a range of values for an initial dust mantle thickness and a range of values for the volatile ratio. These imply the presence of trapped CO. Nevertheless, further studies are required to reproduce the strong change of behaviour observed in RTOF measurements between September 2014 and February 2015.

During a two year period between 2014 and 2016 the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P/C-G) has been probed by the Rosetta spacecraft. Density data for 14 gas species was recorded with the COmet Pressure Sensor (COPS) and the Double Focusing Mass Spectrometer (DFMS) being two sensors of the ROSINA instrument. The combination with an inverse gas model yields emission rates on each of 3996 surface elements of a surface shape for the cometary nucleus.
The temporal evolution of gas production, of relative abundances, and peak productions weeks after perihelion are investigated. Solar irradiation and gas production are in a complex relation revealing features differing for gas species, for mission time, and for the hemispheres of the comet. This characterization of gas composition allows one to correlate 67P/C-G to other solar and interstellar comets, their formation conditions and nucleus properties, see [Bodewits D., et al., 2020 Nature Astronomy].

The determination of non-gravitational forces based on precise astrometry is one of the main tools to establish the cometary character of interstellar and solar-system objects. The Rosetta mission to comet 67P/C-G provided the unique opportunity to benchmark Earth-bound estimates of non-gravitational forces with in-situ data. We determine the accuracy of the standard Marsden and Sekanina parametrization of non-gravitational forces with respect to the observed dynamics. Additionally we analyse the rotation-axis changes (orientation and period) of 67P/C-G. This comparison provides a reference case for future cometary missions and sublimation models for non-gravitational forces.

The coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko has been probed by the Rosetta spacecraft and shows a variety of different molecules. The ROSINA COmet Pressure Sensor and the Double Focusing Mass Spectrometer provide in-situ densities for many volatile compounds including the 14 gas species H2O, CO2, CO, H2S, O2, C2H6, CH3OH, H2CO, CH4, NH3, HCN, C2H5OH, OCS, and CS2. We fit the observed densities during the entire comet mission between August 2014 and September 2016 to an inverse coma model. We retrieve surface emissions on a cometary shape with 3996 triangular elements for 50 separated time intervals. For each gas we derive systematic error bounds and report the temporal evolution of the production, peak production, and the time-integrated total production. We discuss the production for the two lobes of the nucleus and for the northern and southern hemispheres. Moreover we provide a comparison of the gas production with the seasonal illumination.

Context. The change of the rotation period and the orientation of the rotation axis of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P/C-G) is deducible from images taken by the scientific imaging instruments on-board the Rosetta mission with high precision. Non gravitational forces are a natural explanation for these data.
Aims. We describe observed changes for the orientation of the rotation axis and the rotation period of 67P/C-G. For these changes we give an explanation based on a sublimation model with a best-fit for the surface active fraction (model P). Torque effects of periodically changing gas emissions on the surface are considered.
Methods. We solve the equation of state for the angular momentum in the inertial and the body- fixed frames and provide an analytic theory of the rotation changes in terms of Fourier coefficients, generally applicable to periodically forced rigid body dynamics.
Results. The torque induced changes of the rotation state constrain the physical properties of the surface, the sublimation rate and the local active fraction of the surface.
Conclusions. We determine a distribution of the local surface active fraction in agreement with the rotation properties, period and orientation, of 67P/C-G. The torque movement confirms that the sublimation increases faster than the insolation towards perihelion. The derived relatively uniform activity pattern is discussed in terms of related surface features.

Cometary activity affects the orbital motion and rotation state due to sublimation induced forces. The availability of precise rotation-axis orientation and position data from the Rosetta mission allows one to accurately determine the outgassing of comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko/67P (67P).
We derive the observed non-gravitational acceleration of 67P directly from the Rosetta spacecraft trajectory. From the non-gravitational acceleration we recover the diurnal outgassing variations and study a possible delay of the sublimation response with respect to the peak solar illumination. This allows us to compare the non-gravitational acceleration of 67P with expectations based on empirical models and common assumptions about the sublimation process.
We use an iterative orbit refinement and Fourier decomposition of the diurnal activity to derive the outgassing induced non-gravitational acceleration. The uncertainties of the data reduction are established by a sensitivity analysis of an ensemble of best-fit orbits for comet 67P.
We find that the Marsden non-gravitational acceleration parameters reproduce part of the non-gravitational acceleration but need to be augmented by an analysis of the nucleus geometry and surface illumination to draw conclusions about the sublimation process on the surface. The non-gravitational acceleration follows closely the subsolar latitude (seasonal illumination), with a small lag angle with respect to local noon around perihelion. The observed minor changes of the rotation axis do not favor forced precession models for the non-gravitational acceleration.
In contrast to the sublimation induced torques, the non-gravitational acceleration does not put strong constraints on localized active areas on the nucleus. We find a close agreement of the orbit deduced non-gravitational acceleration and the water production independently derived from Rosetta in-situ measurement.