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A primal interior point method for control constrained optimal control problems with PDE constraints is considered. Pointwise elimination of the control leads to a homotopy in the remaining state and dual variables, which is addressed by a short step pathfollowing method. The algorithm is applied to the continuous, infinite dimensional problem, where discretization is performed only in the innermost loop when solving linear equations. The a priori elimination of the least regular control permits to obtain the required accuracy with comparable coarse meshes. Convergence of the method and discretization errors are studied, and the method is illustrated at two numerical examples.

In the clinical cancer therapy of regional hyperthermia nonlinear perfusion effects inside and outside the tumor seem to play a not negligible role. A stationary model of such effects leads to a nonlinear Helmholtz term within an elliptic boundary value problem. The present paper reports about the application of a recently designed adaptive multilevel FEM to this problem. For several 3D virtual patients, nonlinear versus linear model is studied. Moreover, the numerical efficiency of the new algorithm is compared with a former application of an adaptive FEM to the corresponding instationary model PDE.

In an aging society where the number of joint replacements rises, it is important to also increase the longevity of implants.
In particular hip implants have a lifetime of at most 15 years. This derives primarily from
pain due to implant migration, wear, inflammation, and dislocation, which is affected by
the positioning of the implant during the surgery. Current joint replacement practice uses
2D software tools and relies on the experience of surgeons. Especially the 2D tools fail to
take the patients’ natural range of motion as well as stress distribution in the 3D joint
induced by different daily motions into account.
Optimizing the hip joint implant position for all possible parametrized motions under the
constraint of a contact problem is prohibitively expensive as there are too many motions
and every position change demands a recalculation of the contact problem. For the
reduction of the computational effort, we use adaptive refinement on the parameter
domain coupled with the interpolation method of Kriging. A coarse initial grid is to be
locally refined using goal-oriented error estimation, reducing locally high variances. This
approach will be combined with multi-grid optimization such that numerical errors are
reduced.

The paper presents a particle method framework for resolving molecular dynamics. Error estimators for both the temporal and spatial discretization are advocated and facilitate a fully adaptive propagation. For time integration, the implicit trapezoidal rule is employed, where an explicit predictor enables large time steps. The framework is developed and exemplified in the context of the classical Liouville equation, where Gaussian phase-space packets are used as particles. Simplified variants are discussed shortly, which should prove to be easily implementable in common molecular dynamics codes. A concept is illustrated by numerical examples for one-dimensional dynamics in double well potential.

The paper extends affine conjugate Newton methods from convex to nonconvex minimization, with particular emphasis on PDE problems originating from compressible hyperelasticity. Based on well-known schemes from finite dimensional nonlinear optimization, three different algorithmic variants are worked out in a function space setting, which permits an adaptive multilevel finite element implementation. These algorithms are tested on two well-known 3D test problems and a real-life example from surgical operation planning.

The paper deals with three different Newton algorithms that have recently been worked out in the general frame of affine invariance. Of particular interest is their performance in the numerical solution of discretized boundary value problems (BVPs) for nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs). Exact Newton methods, where the arising linear systems are solved by direct elimination, and inexact Newton methods, where an inner iteration is used instead, are synoptically presented, both in affine invariant convergence theory and in numerical experiments. The three types of algorithms are: (a) affine covariant (formerly just called affine invariant) Newton algorithms, oriented toward the iterative errors, (b) affine contravariant Newton algorithms, based on iterative residual norms, and (c) affine conjugate Newton algorithms for convex optimization problems and discrete nonlinear elliptic PDEs.

An affine invariant convergence analysis for inexact augmented Lagrangian-SQP methods is presented. The theory is used for the construction of an accuracy matching between iteration errors and truncation errors, which arise from the inexact linear system solves. The theoretical investigations are illustrated numerically by an optimal control problem for the Burgers equation.

We propose a composite step method, designed for equality constrained optimization with partial differential equations. Focus is laid on the construction of a globalization scheme, which is based on cubic regularization of the objective and an affine covariant damped Newton method for feasibility. We show finite termination of the inner loop and fast local convergence of the algorithm. We discuss preconditioning strategies for the iterative solution of the arising linear systems with projected conjugate gradient. Numerical results are shown for optimal control problems subject to a nonlinear heat equation and subject to nonlinear elastic equations arising from an implant design problem in craniofacial surgery.

We consider a shape implant design problem that arises in the context of facial surgery.
We introduce a reformulation as an optimal control problem, where the control acts
as a boundary force. The state is modelled as a minimizer of a polyconvex
hyperelastic energy functional. We show existence of optimal solutions and
derive - on a formal level - first order optimality conditions. Finally, preliminary numerical results
are presented.

The paper presents a new affine invariant theory on asymptotic mesh independence of Newton's method in nonlinear PDEs. Compared to earlier attempts, the new approach is both much simpler and more natural from the algorithmic point of view. The theory is exemplified at collocation methods for ODE boundary value problems and at finite element methods for elliptic PDE problems.

Temperature based death time estimation is based either on simple phenomenological models of corpse cooling or on detailed physical heat transfer models. The latter are much more complex, but allow a higher accuracy of death time estimation as in principle all relevant cooling mechanisms can be taken into account. Here, a complete work flow for finite element based cooling simulation models is presented.
The following steps are demonstrated on CT-phantoms:
• CT-scan
• Segmentation of the CT images for thermodynamically relevant features of individual
geometries
• Conversion of the segmentation result into a Finite Element (FE) simulation model
• Computation of the model cooling curve
• Calculation of the cooling time
For the first time in FE-based cooling time estimation the steps from the CT image over segmentation to FE model generation are semi-automatically performed. The cooling time calculation results are compared to cooling measurements performed on the phantoms under controlled conditions. In this context, the method is validated using different CTphantoms. Some of the CT phantoms thermodynamic material parameters had to be experimentally determined via independent experiments. Moreover the impact of geometry and material parameter uncertainties on the estimated cooling time is investigated by a sensitivity analysis.

We consider an optimal control problem from hyperthermia treatment planning and its barrier regularization. We derive basic results, which lay the groundwork for the computation of optimal solutions via an interior point path-following method. Further, we report on a numerical implementation of such a method and its performance at an example problem.

Container Adaptors
(1999)

The C++ standard template library has many useful containers for data. The standard library includes two adpators, queue, and stack. The authors have extended this model along the lines of relational database semantics. Sometimes the analogy is striking, and we will point it out occasionally. An adaptor allows the standard algorithms to be used on a subset or modification of the data without having to copy the data elements into a new container. The authors provide many useful adaptors which can be used together to produce interesting views of data in a container.

Pulse thermography is a non-destructive testing method based on infrared imaging of transient thermal patterns. Heating the surface of the structure under test for a short period of time generates a non-stationary temperature distribution and thus a thermal contrast between the defect and the sound material. Due to measurement noise, preprocessing of the experimental data is necessary, before reconstruction algorithms can be applied. We propose a decomposition of the measured temperature into Green's function solutions to eliminate noise.

The biodomain model of cardioelectric excitation consists of a reaction‐diffusion equation, an elliptic algebraic constraint, and a set of pointwise ODEs. Fast reaction enforces small time steps, such that for common mesh sizes the reaction‐diffusion equation is easily solved implicitly due to a dominating mass matrix. In contrast, the elliptic constraint does not benefit from small time steps and requires a comparably expensive solution. We propose a delayed residual compensation that improves the solution of the elliptic constraint and thus alleviates the need for long iteration times.

Pulse thermography of concrete structures is used in civil engineering for detecting voids, honeycombing and delamination. The physical situation is readily modeled by Fourier's law. Despite the simplicity of the PDE structure, quantitatively realistic numerical 3D simulation faces two major obstacles. First, the short heating pulse induces a thin boundary layer at the heated surface which encapsulates all information and therefore has to be resolved faithfully. Even with adaptive mesh refinement techniques, obtaining useful accuracies requires an unsatisfactorily fine discretization. Second, bulk material parameters and boundary conditions are barely known exactly. We address both issues by a semi-analytic reformulation of the heat transport problem and by parameter identification. Numerical results are compared with measurements of test specimens.

We consider Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Metric Mapping of general $m$-currents. After stating an optimization algorithm in the function space of admissable morph generating velocity fields, two innovative aspects in this framework are presented and numerically investigated: First, we spatially discretize the velocity field with conforming adaptive finite elements and discuss advantages of this new approach. Second, we directly compute the temporal evolution of discrete $m$-current attributes.

Spectral deferred correction methods for solving stiff ODEs are known to converge rapidly towards the collocation limit solution on equidistant grids, but show a much less favourable contraction on non-equidistant grids such as
Radau-IIa points. We interprete SDC methods as fixed point iterations for the collocation system and propose new DIRK-type sweeps for stiff problems based on purely linear algebraic considerations. Good convergence is recovered also
on non-equidistant grids. The properties of different variants are explored on a couple of numerical examples.

A primal-dual interior point method for optimal control problems with PDE constraints is considered. The algorithm is directly applied to the infinite dimensional problem. Existence and convergence of the central path are analyzed. Numerical results from an inexact continuation method applied to a model problem are shown.

The paper deals with the multilevel solution of {\em elliptic} partial differential equations (PDEs) in a {\em finite element} setting: {\em uniform ellipticity} of the PDE then goes with {\em strict monotonicity} of the derivative of a nonlinear convex functional. A {\em Newton multigrid method} is advocated, wherein {\em linear residuals} are evaluated within the multigrid method for the computation of the Newton corrections. The globalization is performed by some {\em damping} of the ordinary Newton corrections. The convergence results and the algorithm may be regarded as an extension of those for local Newton methods presented recently by the authors. An {\em affine conjugate} global convergence theory is given, which covers both the {\em exact} Newton method (neglecting the occurrence of approximation errors) and {\em inexact} Newton--Galerkin methods addressing the crucial issue of accuracy matching between discretization and iteration errors. The obtained theoretical results are directly applied for the construction of adaptive algorithms. Finally, illustrative numerical experiments with a~{\sf NEWTON--KASKADE} code are documented.

The growing discrepancy between CPU computing power and memory bandwidth drives more and more numerical algorithms into a bandwidth-
bound regime. One example is the overlapping Schwarz smoother, a highly effective building block for iterative multigrid solution of elliptic equations with higher order finite elements. Two options of reducing the required
memory bandwidth are sparsity exploiting storage layouts and representing matrix entries with reduced precision in floating point or fixed point
format. We investigate the impact of several options on storage demand and contraction rate, both analytically in the context of subspace correction methods and numerically at an example of solid mechanics. Both perspectives agree on the favourite scheme: fixed point representation of Cholesky factors in nested dissection storage.

Fast nonlinear programming methods following the all-at-once approach usually employ Newton's method for solving linearized Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) systems. In nonconvex problems, the Newton direction is only guaranteed to be a descent direction if the Hessian of the Lagrange function is positive definite on the nullspace of the active constraints, otherwise some modifications to Newton's method are necessary. This condition can be verified using the signs of the KKT's eigenvalues (inertia), which are usually available from direct solvers for the arising linear saddle point problems. Iterative solvers are mandatory for very large-scale problems, but in general do not provide the inertia. Here we present a preconditioner based on a multilevel incomplete $LBL^T$ factorization, from which an approximation of the inertia can be obtained. The suitability of the heuristics for application in optimization methods is verified on an interior point method applied to the CUTE and COPS test problems, on large-scale 3D PDE-constrained optimal control problems, as well as 3D PDE-constrained optimization in biomedical cancer hyperthermia treatment planning. The efficiency of the preconditioner is demonstrated on convex and nonconvex problems with $150^3$ state variables and $150^2$ control variables, both subject to bound constraints.

Inside Finite Elements
(2016)

All relevant implementation aspects of finite element methods are discussed in this book. The focus is on algorithms and data structures as well as on their concrete implementation. Theory is covered as far as it gives insight into the construction of algorithms.Throughout the exercises a complete FE-solver for scalar 2D problems will be implemented in Matlab/Octave.

Kaskade 7 is a finite element toolbox for the solution of stationary or transient systems of partial differential equations, aimed at supporting application-oriented research in numerical analysis and scientific computing. The library is written in C++ and is based on the Dune interface. The code is independent of spatial dimension and works with different grid managers. An important feature is the mix-and-match approach to discretizing systems of PDEs with different ansatz and test spaces for all variables.
We describe the mathematical concepts behind the library as well as its structure, illustrating its use at several examples on the way.

The paper provides a detailed analysis of a short step interior point algorithm applied to linear control constrained optimal control problems. Using an affine invariant local norm and an inexact Newton corrector, the well-known convergence results from finite dimensional linear programming can be extended to the infinite dimensional setting of optimal control. The present work complements a recent paper of Weiser and Deuflhard, where convergence rates have not been derived. The choice of free parameters, i.e. the corrector accuracy and the number of corrector steps, is discussed.

The finite element setting for nonlinear elliptic PDEs directly leads to the minimization of convex functionals. Uniform ellipticity of the underlying PDE shows up as strict convexity of the arising nonlinear functional. The paper analyzes computational variants of Newton's method for convex optimization in an affine conjugate setting, which reflects the appropriate affine transformation behavior for this class of problems. First, an affine conjugate Newton--Mysovskikh type theorem on the local quadratic convergence of the exact Newton method in Hilbert spaces is given. It can be easily extended to inexact Newton methods, where the inner iteration is only approximately solved. For fixed finite dimension, a special implementation of a Newton--PCG algorithm is worked out. In this case, the suggested monitor for the inner iteration guarantees quadratic convergence of the outer iteration. In infinite dimensional problems, the PCG method may be just formally replaced by any Galerkin method such as FEM for linear elliptic problems. Instead of the algebraic inner iteration errors we now have to control the FE discretization errors, which is a standard task performed within any adaptive multilevel method. A careful study of the information gain per computational effort leads to the result that the quadratic convergence mode of the Newton--Galerkin algorithm is the best mode for the fixed dimensional case, whereas for an adaptive variable dimensional code a special linear convergence mode of the algorithm is definitely preferable. The theoretical results are then illustrated by numerical experiments with a {\sf NEWTON--KASKADE} algorithm.

Solvers for partial differential equations (PDE) are one of the cornerstones of computational science. For large problems, they involve huge amounts of data that needs to be stored and transmitted on all levels of the memory hierarchy. Often, bandwidth is the limiting factor due to relatively small arithmetic intensity, and increasingly so due to the growing disparity between computing power and bandwidth. Consequently, data compression techniques have been investigated and tailored towards the specific requirements of PDE solvers during the last decades. This paper surveys data compression challenges and corresponding solution approaches for PDE problems, covering all levels of the memory hierarchy from mass storage up to main memory. Exemplarily, we illustrate concepts at particular methods, and give references to alternatives.

For the solution of optimal control problems governed by nonlinear parabolic PDEs, methods working on the reduced objective functional are often employed to avoid a full spatio-temporal discretization of the problem. The evaluation of the reduced gradient requires one solve of
the state equation forward in time, and one backward solve of the ad-joint equation. The state enters into the adjoint equation, requiring the storage of a full 4D data set. If Newton-CG methods are used, two additional trajectories have to be stored. To get numerical results which are accurate enough, in many case very fine discretizations in time and space are necessary, which leads to a significant amount of data to be stored and transmitted to mass storage. Lossy compression methods were
developed to overcome the storage problem by reducing the accuracy of the stored trajectories. The inexact data induces errors in the reduced gradient and reduced Hessian. In this paper, we analyze the influence of such a lossy trajectory compression method on Newton-CG methods for optimal control of parabolic PDEs and design an adaptive strategy for choosing appropriate quantization tolerances.

This paper presents efficient computational techniques for solving an optimization problem in cardiac defibrillation governed by the monodomain equations. Time-dependent electrical currents injected at different spatial positions act as the control. Inexact Newton-CG methods are used, with reduced gradient computation by adjoint solves. In order to reduce the computational complexity, adaptive mesh refinement for state and adjoint equations is performed. To reduce the high storage and bandwidth demand imposed by adjoint gradient and Hessian-vector evaluations, a lossy compression technique for storing trajectory data is applied. An adaptive choice of quantization tolerance based on error estimates is developed in order to ensure convergence. The efficiency of the proposed approach is demonstrated on numerical examples.