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A beautiful result of Bröcker and Scheiderer on the stability index of basic closed semi-algebraic sets implies, as a very special case, that every $d$-dimensional polyhedron admits a representation as the set of solutions of at most $d(d+1)/2$ polynomial inequalities. Even in this polyhedral case, however, no constructive proof is known, even if the quadratic upper bound is replaced by any bound depending only on the dimension. Here we give, for simple polytopes, an explicit construction of polynomials describing such a polytope. The number of used polynomials is exponential in the dimension, but in the 2- and 3-dimensional case we get the expected number $d(d+1)/2$.

Our main result is that every $n$-dimensional polytope can be described by at most $2n-1$ polynomial inequalities and, moreover, these polynomials can explicitly be constructed. For an $n$-dimensional pointed polyhedral cone we prove the bound $2n-2$ and for arbitrary polyhedra we get a constructible representation by $2n$ polynomial inequalities.

Our main result is that every n-dimensional polytope can be described by at most (2n-1) polynomial inequalities and, moreover, these polynomials can explicitly be constructed. For an n-dimensional pointed polyhedral cone we prove the bound 2n-2 and for arbitrary polyhedra we get a constructible representation by 2n polynomial inequalities.

For $n\geq 6$ we provide a counterexample to the conjecture that every integral vector of a $n$-dimensional integral polyhedral pointed cone $C$ can be written as a nonnegative integral combination of at most $n$ elements of the Hilbert basis of $C$. In fact, we show that in general at least $\lfloor 7/6 \cdot n \rfloor$ elements of the Hilbert basis are needed.

This paper deals with the study of test sets of the knapsack problem and simultaneous diophantine approximation. The Graver test set of the knapsack problem can be derived from minimal integral solutions of linear diophantine equations. We present best possible inequalities that must be satisfied by all minimal integral solutions of a linear diophantine equation and prove that for the corresponding cone the integer analogue of Caratheodory's theorem applies when the numbers are divisible. We show that the elements of the minimal Hilbert basis of the dual cone of all minimal integral solutions of a linear diophantine equation yield best approximations of a rational vector ``from above''. A recursive algorithm for computing this Hilbert basis is discussed. We also outline an algorithm for determining a Hilbert basis of a family of cones associated with the knapsack problem.

Based on an approach of Affentranger&Schneider we give an asymptotic formula for the expected number of $k$-faces of the orthogonal projection of a regular $n$-crosspolytope onto a randomly chosen isotopic subspace of fixed dimension, as $n$ tends to infinity. In particular, we present a precise asymptotic formula for the (spherical) volume of spherical regular simplices, which generalizes Daniel's formula.

Let $G$ be a finite subgroup of SL$\left( r,% {\mathbb{C}}\right) $. In dimensions $r=2$ and $r=3$, McKay correspondence provides a natural bijection between the set of irreducible representations of $G$ and a cohomology-ring basis of the overlying space of a projective, crepant desingularization of ${\mathbb{C}}^r/G$. For $r=2$ this desingularization is unique and is known to be determined by the Hilbert scheme of the $G$% -orbits. Similar statements (including a method of distinguishing just {\it{one}} among all possible smooth minimal models of ${\mathbb{C}}^3/G$), are very probably true for all $G$'s $\subset $ SL$\left( 3,{\mathbb{C}}\right) $ too, and recent Hilbert-scheme-techniques due to Ito, Nakamura and Reid, are expected to lead to a new fascinating uniform theory. For dimensions $r\geq 4 $, however, to apply analogous techniques one needs extra modifications. In addition, minimal models of ${\mathbb{C}}^r/G$ are smooth only under special circumstances. ${\mathbb{C}}^4/\left( \hbox{\rm involution}\right) $, for instance, cannot have any smooth minimal model. On the other hand, all abelian quotient spaces which are c.i.'s can always be fully resolved by torus-equivariant, crepant, projective morphisms. Hence, from the very beginning, the question whether a given Gorenstein quotient space ${\mathbb{C}}% ^r/G$, $r\geq 4$, admits special desingularizations of this kind, seems to be absolutely crucial.\noindent In the present paper, after a brief introduction to the existence-problem of such desingularizations (for abelian $G$'s) from the point of view of toric geometry, we prove that the Gorenstein cyclic quotient singularities of type \[ \frac 1l\,\left( 1,\ldots ,1,l-\left( r-1\right) \right) \] with $l\geq r\geq 2$, have a \textit{unique }torus-equivariant projective, crepant, partial resolution, which is full'' iff either $l\equiv 0$ mod $% \left( r-1\right) $ or $l\equiv 1$ mod $\left( r-1\right) $. As it turns out, if one of these two conditions is fulfilled, then the exceptional locus of the full desingularization consists of $\lfloor\frac{l}{r-1} \rfloor $ prime divisors, $\lfloor\frac{l}{r-1} \rfloor -1$ of which are isomorphic to the total spaces of ${\mathbb{P}}_{{\mathbb{C}}}^1$-bundles over ${\mathbb{P}}_{{\mathbb{C}}% }^{r-2}$. Moreover, it is shown that intersection numbers are computable explicitly and that the resolution morphism can be viewed as a composite of successive (normalized) blow-ups. Obviously, the monoparametrized singularity-series of the above type contains (as its first member'') the well-known Gorenstein singularity defined by the origin of the affine cone which lies over the $r$-tuple Veronese embedding of ${\mathbb{P}}_{\mathbb{C}}^{r-1}$.

All Abelian Quotient C.I.-Singularities Admit Projective Crepant Resolutions in All Dimensions
(1997)

\def\Bbb{\mathbb} For Gorenstein quotient spaces $\Bbb{C}^d/G$, a direct generalization of the classical McKay correspondence in dimensions $d\geq 4$ would primarily demand the existence of projective, crepant desingularizations. Since this turned out to be not always possible, Reid asked about special classes of such quotient spaces which would satisfy the above property. We prove that the underlying spaces of all Gorenstein abelian quotient singularities, which are embeddable as complete intersections of hypersurfaces in an affine space, have torus-equivariant projective crepant resolutions in all dimensions. We use techniques from toric and discrete geometry.