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Mobile telecommunication systems establish a large number of communication links with a limited number of available frequencies; reuse of the same or adjacent frequencies on neighboring links causes interference. The task to find an assignment of frequencies to channels with minimal interference is the frequency assignment problem. The frequency assignment problem is usually treated as a graph coloring problem where the number of colors is minimized, but this approach does not model interference minimization correctly. We give in this paper a new integer programming formulation of the frequency assignment problem, the orientation model, and develop a heuristic two-stage method to solve it. The algorithm iteratively solves an outer and an inner optimization problem. The outer problem decides for each pair of communication links which link gets the higher frequency and leads to an acyclic subdigraph problem with additional longest path restrictions. The inner problem to find an optimal assignment respecting an orientation leads to a min-cost flow problem.

A beautiful result of Bröcker and Scheiderer on the stability index of basic closed semi-algebraic sets implies, as a very special case, that every $d$-dimensional polyhedron admits a representation as the set of solutions of at most $d(d+1)/2$ polynomial inequalities. Even in this polyhedral case, however, no constructive proof is known, even if the quadratic upper bound is replaced by any bound depending only on the dimension. Here we give, for simple polytopes, an explicit construction of polynomials describing such a polytope. The number of used polynomials is exponential in the dimension, but in the 2- and 3-dimensional case we get the expected number $d(d+1)/2$.

Our main result is that every $n$-dimensional polytope can be described by at most $2n-1$ polynomial inequalities and, moreover, these polynomials can explicitly be constructed. For an $n$-dimensional pointed polyhedral cone we prove the bound $2n-2$ and for arbitrary polyhedra we get a constructible representation by $2n$ polynomial inequalities.

Our main result is that every n-dimensional polytope can be described by at most (2n-1) polynomial inequalities and, moreover, these polynomials can explicitly be constructed. For an n-dimensional pointed polyhedral cone we prove the bound 2n-2 and for arbitrary polyhedra we get a constructible representation by 2n polynomial inequalities.

We show that, given a wheel with nonnegative edge lengths and pairs of terminals located on the wheel's outer cycle such that the terminal pairs are in consecutive order, then a path packing, i.~e., a collection of edge disjoint paths connecting the given terminal pairs, of minimum length can be found in strongly polynomial time. Moreover, we exhibit for this case a system of linear inequalities that provides a complete and nonredundant description of the path packing polytope, which is the convex hull of all incidence vectors of path packings and their supersets.

We present a graph-theoretic model for the \emph{frequency assignment problem} in Cellular Phone Networks: Obeying several technical and legal restrictions, frequencies have to be assigned to transceivers so that interference is as small as possible. This optimization problem is NP-hard. Good approximation cannot be guaranteed, unless P = NP. We describe several assignment heuristics. These heuristics are simple and not too hard to implement. We give an assessment of the heuristics' efficiency and practical usefulness. For this purpose, typical instances of frequency assignment problems with up to 4240 transceivers and 75 frequencies of a German cellular phone network operator are used. The results are satisfying from a practitioner's point of view. The best performing heuristics were integrated into a network planning system used in practice.

Let $G=(V,E)$ be a graph and $T\subseteq V$ be a node set. We call an edge set $S$ a Steiner tree with respect to $T$ if $S$ connects all pairs of nodes in $T$. In this paper we address the following problem, which we call the weighted Steiner tree packing problem. Given a graph $G=(V,E)$ with edge weights $w_e$, edge capacities $c_e, e \in E,$ and node sets $T_1,\ldots,T_N$, find edge sets $S_1,\ldots,S_N$ such that each $S_k$ is a Steiner tree with respect to $T_k$, at most $c_e$ of these edge sets use edge $e$ for each $e\in E$, and such that the sum of the weights of the edge sets is minimal. Our motivation for studying this problem arises from the routing problem in VLSI-design, where given sets of points have to be connected by wires. We consider the Steiner tree packing Problem from a polyhedral point of view and define an appropriate polyhedron, called the Steiner tree packing polyhedron. The goal of this paper is to (partially) describe this polyhedron by means of inequalities. It turns out that, under mild assumptions, each inequality that defines a facet for the (single) Steiner tree polyhedron can be lifted to a facet-defining inequality for the Steiner tree packing polyhedron. The main emphasis of this paper lies on the presentation of so-called joint inequalities that are valid and facet-defining for this polyhedron. Inequalities of this kind involve at least two Steiner trees. The classes of inequalities we have found form the basis of a branch & cut algorithm. This algorithm is described in our companion paper SC 92-09.

In this paper we describe a cutting plane algorithm for the Steiner tree packing problem. We use our algorithm to solve some switchbox routing problems of VLSI-design and report on our computational experience. This includes a brief discussion of separation algorithms, a new LP-based primal heuristic and implementation details. The paper is based on the polyhedral theory for the Steiner tree packing polyhedron developed in our companion paper SC 92-8 and meant to turn this theory into an algorithmic tool for the solution of practical problems.

In this paper we describe several versions of the routing problem arising in VLSI design and indicate how the Steiner tree packing problem can be used to model these problems mathematically. We focus on switchbox routing problems and provide integer programming formulations for routing in the knock-knee and in the Manhattan model. We give a brief sketch of cutting plane algorithms that we developed and implemented for these two models. We report on computational experiments using standard test instances. Our codes are able to determine optimum solutions in most cases, and in particular, we can show that some of the instances have no feasible solution if Manhattan routing is used instead of knock-knee routing.

In this paper we describe and discuss a problem that arises in the (global) design of a main frame computer. The task is to assign certain functional units to a given number of so called multi chip modules or printed circuit boards taking into account many technical constraints and minimizing a complex objective function. We describe the real world problem. A thorough mathematical modelling of all aspects of this problem results in a rather complicated integer program that seems to be hopelessly difficult -- at least for the present state of integer programming technology. We introduce several relaxations of the general model, which are also $NP$-hard, but seem to be more easily accessible. The mathematical relations between the relaxations and the exact formulation of the problem are discussed as well.