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For a given thermodynamic system, and a given choice of coarse-grained state variables, the knowledge of a force-flux constitutive law is the basis for any nonequilibrium modeling. In the first paper of this series we established how, by a generalization of the classical fluctuation-dissipation theorem (FDT), the structure of a constitutive law is directly related to the distribution of the fluctuations of the state variables. When these fluctuations can be expressed in terms of diffusion processes, one may use Green–Kubo-type coarse-graining schemes to find the constitutive laws. In this paper we propose a coarse-graining method that is valid when the fluctuations are described by means of general Markov processes, which include diffusions as a special case. We prove the success of the method by numerically computing the constitutive law for a simple chemical reaction A⇄B. Furthermore, we show that, for such a system, one cannot find a consistent constitutive law by any Green–Kubo-like scheme.

Exploring families of energy-dissipation landscapes via tilting: three types of EDP convergence
(2021)

This paper revolves around a subtle distinction between two concepts: passing to the limit in a family of gradient systems, on one hand, and deriving effective kinetic relations on the other. The two concepts are strongly related, and in many examples they even appear to be the same. Our main contributions are to show that they are different, to show that well-known techniques developed for the former may give incorrect results for the latter, and to introduce new tools to remedy this. The approach is based on the Energy-Dissipation Principle that provides a variational formulation to gradient-flow equations that allows one to apply techniques from Γ-convergence of functional on states and functionals on trajectories.

Understanding the fluctuations by which phenomenological evolution equations with thermodynamic structure can be enhanced is the key to a general framework of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. These fluctuations provide an idealized representation of microscopic details. We consider fluctuation-enhanced equations associated with Markov processes and elaborate the general recipes for evaluating dynamic material properties, which characterize force-flux constitutive laws, by statistical mechanics. Markov processes with continuous trajectories are conveniently characterized by stochastic differential equations and lead to Green–Kubo-type formulas for dynamic material properties. Markov processes with discontinuous jumps include transitions over energy barriers with the rates calculated by Kramers. We describe a unified approach to Markovian fluctuations and demonstrate how the appropriate type of fluctuations (continuous versus discontinuous) is reflected in the mathematical structure of the phenomenological equations.