### Refine

#### Document Type

- ZIB-Report (4)
- Article (2)

#### Keywords

- Automatic Differentiation (2)
- Lipschitz Continuity (2)
- Nonsmooth (2)
- Piecewise Linearization (2)
- Trapezoidal Rule (2)
- ADOL-C (1)
- Algorithmic Differentiation (1)
- Automatic differentiation (1)
- Computational Cost (1)
- Computational graph (1)

#### Institute

In this article we analyze a generalized trapezoidal rule for initial value problems with piecewise smooth right hand side F:IR^n -> IR^n.
When applied to such a problem, the classical trapezoidal rule suffers from a loss of accuracy if the solution trajectory intersects a non-differentiability of F. In such a situation the investigated generalized trapezoidal rule achieves a higher convergence order than the classical method. While the asymptotic behavior of the generalized method was investigated in a previous work, in the present article we develop the algorithmic structure for efficient implementation strategies
and estimate the actual computational cost of the latter.
Moreover, energy preservation of the generalized trapezoidal rule is proved for Hamiltonian systems with piecewise linear right hand side.

Recent research has shown that piecewise smooth (PS) functions can be approximated by piecewise linear functions with second order error in the distance to
a given reference point. A semismooth Newton type algorithm based on successive application of these piecewise linearizations was subsequently developed
for the solution of PS equation systems. For local bijectivity of the linearization
at a root, a radius of quadratic convergence was explicitly calculated in terms
of local Lipschitz constants of the underlying PS function. In the present work
we relax the criterium of local bijectivity of the linearization to local openness.
For this purpose a weak implicit function theorem is proved via local mapping
degree theory. It is shown that there exist PS functions f:IR^2 --> IR^2 satisfying the weaker
criterium where every neighborhood of the root of f contains a point x such that
all elements of the Clarke Jacobian at x are singular. In such neighborhoods
the steps of classical semismooth Newton are not defined, which establishes
the new method as an independent algorithm. To further clarify the relation between a PS function and its piecewise linearization,
several statements about structure correspondences between the two are proved.
Moreover, the influence of the specific representation of the local piecewise linear models
on the robustness of our method is studied.
An example application from cardiovascular mathematics is given.

It is shown how piecewise differentiable functions \(F: R^n → R^m\) that are defined by evaluation programs can be approximated locally by a piecewise linear model based on a pair of sample points x̌ and x̂. We show that the discrepancy between function and model at any point x is of the bilinear order O(||x − x̌|| ||x − x̂||). This is a little surprising since x ∈ R^n may vary over the whole Euclidean space, and we utilize only two function samples F̌ = F(x̌) and F̂ = F(x̂), as well as the intermediates computed during their evaluation. As an application of the piecewise linearization procedure we devise a generalized Newton’s method based on successive piecewise linearization and prove for it sufficient conditions for convergence and convergence rates equaling those of semismooth Newton. We conclude with the derivation of formulas for the numerically stable implementation of the aforedeveloped piecewise linearization methods.

In this article we analyze a generalized trapezoidal rule for initial value problems with piecewise smooth right hand side \(F:R^n \to R^n\) based on a generalization of algorithmic differentiation. When applied to such a problem, the classical trapezoidal rule suffers from a loss of accuracy if the solution trajectory intersects a nondifferentiability of \(F\). The advantage of the proposed generalized trapezoidal rule is threefold: Firstly, we can achieve a higher convergence order than with the classical method. Moreover, the method is energy preserving for piecewise linear Hamiltonian systems. Finally, in analogy to the classical case we derive a third order interpolation polynomial for the numerical trajectory. In the smooth case the generalized rule reduces to the classical one. Hence, it is a proper extension of the classical theory. An error estimator is given and numerical results are presented.

In this article we analyse a generalized trapezoidal rule for initial value problems with piecewise smooth right-hand side F : IR^n -> IR^n based on a generalization of algorithmic differentiation. When applied to such a problem, the classical trapezoidal rule suffers from a loss of accuracy if the solution trajectory intersects a nondifferentiability of F. The advantage of the proposed generalized trapezoidal rule is threefold: Firstly, we can achieve a higher convergence order than with the classical method. Moreover, the method is energy preserving for piecewise linear Hamiltonian systems. Finally, in analogy to the classical case we derive a third-order interpolation polynomial for the numerical trajectory. In the smooth case, the generalized rule reduces to the classical one. Hence, it is a proper extension of the classical theory. An error estimator is given and numerical results are presented.

It is shown how piecewise differentiable functions F : IR^n -> IR^m that are defined by evaluation programmes can be approximated locally by a piecewise linear model based on a pair of sample points \check x and \hat x. We show that the discrepancy between function and model at any point x is of the bilinear order O(||x - \check x||*||x - \hat x||). As an application of the piecewise linearization procedure we devise a generalized Newton's method based on successive piecewise linearization and prove for it sufficient conditions for convergence and convergence rates equalling those of semismooth Newton. We conclude with the derivation of formulas for the numerically stable implementation of the aforedeveloped piecewise linearization methods.