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This study investigates the progress made in LP and MILP solver performance during the last two decades by comparing the solver software from the beginning of the millennium with the codes available today.
On average, we found out that for solving LP/MILP, computer hardware got about 20 times faster, and the algorithms improved by a factor of about nine for LP and around 50 for MILP, which gives a total speed-up of about 180 and 1,000 times, respectively.
However, these numbers have a very high variance and they considerably underestimate the progress made on the algorithmic side: many problem instances can nowadays be solved within seconds, which the old codes are not able to solve within any reasonable time.

In the transition towards a pure hydrogen infrastructure, repurposing the existing natural gas infrastructure is considered. In this study, the maximal technically feasible injection of hydrogen into the existing German natural gas transmission network is analysed with respect to regulatory limits regarding the gas quality. We propose a transient tracking model based on the general pooling problem including linepack. The analysis is conducted using real-world hourly gas flow data on a network of about 10,000 km length.

This study investigates the progress made in lp and milp solver performance during the last two decades by comparing the solver software from the beginning of the millennium with the codes available today. On average, we found out that for solving lp/milp, computer hardware got about 20 times faster, and the algorithms improved by a factor of about nine for lp and around 50 for milp, which gives a total speed-up of about 180 and 1,000 times, respectively. However, these numbers have a very high variance and they considerably underestimate the progress made on the algorithmic side: many problem instances can nowadays be solved within seconds, which the old codes are not able to solve within any reasonable time.

Die europaische Gasinfrastruktur wird disruptiv in ein zukunftiges dekarbonisiertes Energiesystem verändert; ein Prozess, der angesichts der jüngsten politischen Situation beschleunigt werden muss. Mit einem wachsenden Wasserstoffmarkt wird der pipelinebasierte Transport unter Nutzung der bestehenden Erdgasinfrastruktur wirtschaftlich sinnvoll, trägt zur Erhöhung der öffentlichen Akzeptanz bei und beschleunigt den Umstellungsprozess. In diesem Beitrag wird die maximal technisch machbare Einspeisung von Wasserstoff in das bestehende deutsche Erdgastransportnetz hinsichtlich regulatorischer Grenzwerte der Gasqualität analysiert. Die Analyse erfolgt auf Basis eines transienten Tracking-Modells, das auf dem allgemeinen Pooling-Problem einschließlich Linepack aufbaut. Es zeigt sich, dass das Gasnetz auch bei strengen Grenzwerten gen ̈ugend Kapazität bietet, um für einen großen Teil der bis 2030 geplanten Erzeugungskapazität für grünen Wasserstoff als garantierter Abnehmer zu dienen.

Die europäische Gasinfrastruktur wird disruptiv in ein zukünftiges dekarbonisiertes Energiesystem verändert; ein Prozess, der angesichts der jüngsten politischen Situation beschleunigt werden muss. Mit einem wachsenden Wasserstoffmarkt wird der pipelinebasierte Transport unter Nutzung der bestehenden Erdgasinfrastruktur wirtschaftlich sinnvoll, trägt zur Erhöhung der öffentlichen Akzeptanz bei und beschleunigt den Umstellungsprozess. In diesem Fachbeitrag wird die maximal technisch machbare Einspeisung von Wasserstoff in das bestehende deutsche Erdgastransportnetz hinsichtlich regulatorischer Grenzwerte der Gasqualität analysiert. Die Analyse erfolgt auf Basis eines transienten Tracking-Modells, das auf dem allgemeinen Pooling-Problem
einschließlich Linepack aufbaut. Es zeigt sich, dass das Gasnetz auch bei strengen Grenzwerten genügend Kapazität bietet, um für einen großen Teil der bis 2030 geplanten Erzeugungskapazität für grünen Wasserstoff als garantierter Abnehmer zu dienen.

Existing planning approaches for onshore wind farm siting and network integration often do not meet minimum cost solutions or social and environmental considerations. In this paper, we develop an approach for the multi-objective optimization of turbine locations and their network connection using a Quota Steiner tree problem. Applying a novel transformation on a known directed cut formulation, reduction techniques, and heuristics, we design an exact solver that makes large problem instances solvable and outperforms generic MIP solvers. Although our case studies in selected regions of Germany show large trade-offs between the objective criteria of cost and landscape impact, small burdens on one criterion can significantly improve the other criteria. In addition, we demonstrate that contrary to many approaches for exclusive turbine siting, network integration must be simultaneously optimized in order to avoid excessive costs or landscape impacts in the course of a wind farm project. Our novel problem formulation and the developed solver can assist planners in decision making and help optimize wind farms in large regions in the future.

While energy-intensive industries like the steel industry plan to switch to renewable energy sources, other industries, such as the cement industry, have to rely on carbon capture storage and utilization technologies to reduce the inevitable carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions of their production processes. In this context, we investigate the problem of finding optimal pipeline diameters from a discrete set of diameters for a tree-shaped network transporting captured CO2 from multiple sources to a single sink.
The general problem of optimizing arc capacities in potential-based fluid networks is a challenging mixed-integer nonlinear program. Additionally, the behaviour of CO2 is highly sensitive and nonlinear regarding temperature and pressure changes. We propose an iterative algorithm splitting the problem into two parts: a) the pipe-sizing problem under a fixed supply scenario and temperature distribution and b) the thermophysical modelling including mixing effects, the Joule-Thomson effect, and heat exchange with the surrounding environment. We show the effectiveness of our approach by applying our algorithm to a real-world network planning problem for a CO2 network in Western Germany.

Existing planning approaches for onshore wind farm siting and grid integration often do not meet minimum cost solutions or social and environmental considerations. In this paper, we develop an exact approach for the integrated layout and cable routing problem of onshore wind farm planning using the Quota Steiner tree problem. Applying a novel transformation on a known directed cut formulation, reduction techniques, and heuristics, we design an exact solver that makes large problem instances solvable and outperforms generic MIP solvers. In selected regions of Germany, the trade-offs between minimizing costs and landscape impact of onshore wind farm siting are investigated. Although our case studies show large trade-offs between the objective criteria of cost and landscape impact, small burdens on one criterion can significantly improve the other criteria. In addition, we demonstrate that contrary to many approaches for exclusive turbine siting, grid integration must be simultaneously optimized to avoid excessive costs or landscape impacts in the course of a wind farm project. Our novel problem formulation and the developed solver can assist planners in decision-making and help optimize wind farms in large regions in the future.

Growing demand, distributed generation, such as renewable energy sources (RES), and the increasing role of storage systems to mitigate the volatility of RES on a medium voltage level, push existing distribution grids to their limits. Therefore, necessary network expansion needs to be evaluated to guarantee a safe and reliable electricity supply in the future taking these challenges into account. This problem is formulated as an optimal power flow (OPF) problem which combines network expansion, volatile generation and storage systems, minimizing network expansion and generation costs. As storage systems introduce a temporal coupling into the system, a multiperiod OPF problem is needed and analysed in this thesis. To reduce complexity, the network expansion problem is represented in a continuous nonlinear programming formulation by using fundamental properties of electrical engeneering. This formulation is validated succesfully against a common mixed integer programming approach on a 30 and 57 bus network with respect to solution and computing time. As the OPF problem is, in general, a nonconvex, nonlinear problem and, thus, hard to solve, convex relaxations of the power flow equations have gained increasing interest. Sufficient conditions are represented which guarantee exactness of a second-order cone (SOC) relaxation of an operational OPF in radial networks. In this thesis, these conditions are enhanced for the network expansion planning problem. Additionally, nonconvexities introduced by the choice of network expansion variables are relaxed by using McCormick envelopes. These relaxations are then applied on the multiperiod OPF and compared to the original problem on a 30 and a 57 bus network. In particular, the computational time is decreased by an order up to 10^2 by the SOC relaxation while it provides either an exact solution or a sufficient lower bound on the original problem. Finally, a sensitivity study is performed on weights of network expansion costs showing strong dependency of both the solution of performed expansion and solution time on the chosen weights.

The ongoing energy transition introduces new challenges for distribution networks and brings about the need to expand existing power grid capacities. In order to contain network expansion and with it economic costs, utilization of various flexibility options to reduce expansion needs is discussed. This paper proposes a multiperiod optimal power flow (MPOPF) approach with a new continuous network expansion formulation to optimize the deployment of flexibility options under the objective of minimizing network expansion costs. In a comparison of the newly proposed continuous network expansion formulation with an existing mixed integer formulation and a continuous interpretation of the latter the here proposed formulation is shown to be useful in order to obtain a solvable problem and contain computational efforts. The presented MPOPF including the flexibility options storage units and curtailment is then assessed on synthetic medium voltage grids and applied to evaluate the benefit of a combined vs. a stepwise optimization of these flexibility options. It is demonstrated that using a local solver the proposed approach is applicable and yields a solution in reasonable time. Furthermore, it is shown that the combined optimization generally leads to a more efficient utilization of the considered flexibility options and therefore lower grid expansion costs than the stepwise consideration.